Advertisement

Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform NMR Spectroscopy

  • Gareth A. Morris

Abstract

Most of the chemical problems presented to an NMR spectroscopist can be solved by straightforward measurement and analysis of a conventional spectrum. A small but important proportion of the problems require a more flexible approach, either because the normal spectrum provides too little information, or because it contains so many signals that individual lines cannot be resolved. Many of these more awkward problems can be tackled with the aid of two-dimensional (or in popular parlance ‘2D’) NMR.

Keywords

Pulse Sequence Cross Peak Free Induction Decay Spin Echo Scalar Coupling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Freeman, R., and Morris, G. A. 1979, Bull. Magn. Reson. 1, 5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Freeman, R. 1980, Proc. Roy. Soc. A373, 149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aue, W. P., Bartholdi, E., and Ernst, R. R. 1976, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 2229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Müller, L., Kumar, A., and Ernst, R. R. 1975, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 5490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Höhener, A., Müller, L., and Ernst, R. R. 1979, Mol. Phys. 38, 909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bodenhausen, G., Stark, R. E., Ruben, D. J., and Griffin, R. G. 1979, Chem. Phys. Lett. 67, 424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Polak, M., Highe, A. J., and Vaughan, R. W., 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 37, 357.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Freeman, R., and Hill, H. D. W. 1971, J. Chem. Phys. 54, 301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vold, R. L., and Chan. S. O. 1970, J. Chem. Phys. 53, 447.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gutowsky, H. S., McCall, D. W., and Slichter, C. P. 1951, Phys. Rev. 84, 589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hahn, E. L., and Maxwell, D. E. 1951, Phys. Rev, 84, 1246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abragam, A. 1961, The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Freeman, R., and Hill, H. D. W. 1975, in Dynamic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, ed. Jackman, L. M. and Cotton, F. A., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aue, W. P., Karhan, J., and Ernst, R. R. 1976, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nagayama, K., Wüthrich, K., Bachmann, P., and Ernst, R. R. 1977, Naturwiss. 64, 581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nagayama, K., Wüthrich, K., Bachmann, P., and Ernst, R. R. 1977, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 78, 99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kumar, A., and Khetrapal, C. L. 1978, J. Magn. Reson. 30, 137.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kumar, A. 1978, J. Magn. Reson. 30, 227.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bodenhausen, G., Freeman, R., Morris, G. A., and Turner, D. L. 1978, J. Magn. Reson. 31, 75.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bodenhausen, G., Freeman, R., Morris, G. A., and Turner, D. L. 1977, J. Magn. Reson. 28, 17.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Niedermeyer, R., and Freeman, R. 1978, J. Magn. Reson. 30, 617.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barfield, M., Brown, S. E., Canada, E. D., Jr., Ledford, N. D., Marshall, J. L., Walter, S. R., and Yakali, E. 1980, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 102, 3355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nagayama, K., Bachmann, P., Ernst, R. R., and Wüthrich, K. 1979, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 86, 218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nagayama, K. 1979, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hall, L. D., and Sukumar, S. 1979, Carbohydr. Res. 74, C1–C4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hall, L. D., Sukumar, S., and Sullivan, G. R. 1979, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 292.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hall, L. D., and Sukumar, S. 1979, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 101, 3120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Everett, J. R., Hughes, D. W., Bain, A. D., and Bell, R. A. 1979, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 101, 6776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hall, L. D., Morris, G. A., and Sukumar, S. 1979, Carbohydr. Res. 76, C7–C9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hall, L. D., Morris, G. A., and Sukumar, S. 1980, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 102, 1745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hall, L. D., and Sukumar, S. 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 38, 555.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hall, L. D., Sanders, J. K. M., and Sukumar, S. 1980, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 366.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Khetrapal, C. L., Kumar, A., Kunwar, A. C, Mathias, P. C., and Ramanathan, K. V. 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 37, 349.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rabenstein, D. L. 1978, Anal. Chem. 50, 1265A.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bodenhausen, G., Freeman, R., Niedermeyer, R., and Turner, D. L. 1976, J. Magn. Reson. 24, 291.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bodenhausen, G., Freeman, R., and Turner, D. L. 1976, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bodenhausen, G., Freeman, R., Niedermeyer, R., and Turner, D. L. 1977, J. Magn. Reson. 26, 133.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bodenhausen, G., Freeman, R., and Turner, D. L. 1977, J. Magn. Reson. 27, 511.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Freeman, R., Morris, G. A., and Turner, D. L. 1977, J. Magn. Reson. 26, 373.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kumar, A., Aue, W. P., Bachmann, P., Karhan, J., Müller, L. and Ernst, R. R. 1976, Proc. XIXth Congress Ampère, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Müller, L., Kumar, A., and Ernst, R. R. 1977, J. Magn. Reson. 25, 383.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Müller, L. 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 38, 79.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zumbulyadis, N., Henrichs, P. M., and Schwartz, L. J. 1977, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Turner, D. L., and Freeman, R. 1978, J. Magn. Reson. 29, 587.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hall, L. D., and Morris, G. A. 1980, Carbohydr. Res. 82, 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bachmann, P., Aue, W. P., Muller, L., and Ernst, R. R. 1977, J. Magn. Reson. 28, 29.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Freeman, R., Kempsell, S. P., and Levitt, M. H. 1979, J. Magn. Reson. 34, 663.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Levitt, M. H., and Freeman, R. 1979, J. Magn. Reson. 34, 675.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ernst, R. R. 1975, Chimia 29, 179.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nagayama, K., Wüthrich, K., and Ernst, R. R. 1979, Biochem. Bio-phys. Res. Commun. 90, 305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bain, A. D., Bell, R. A., Everett, J. R., and Hughes, D. W. 1980, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 256.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bax, A., Freeman, R., and Morris, G. A. 1981, J. Magn. Reson. 42, 164.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bolton, P. H., and Bodenhausen, G. 1979, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 101, 1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bodenhausen, G., and Bolton, P. H. 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 39, 399.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bodenhausen, G., and Ruben, D. J. 1980, Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Finster, D. C., Hutton, W. C, and Grimes, R. N. 1980, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 102, 400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Maudsley, A.A, and Ernst, R. R. 1977, Chem. Phys. Lett. 50, 368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Maudsley, A. A., Muller, L., and Ernst, R. R. 1977, J. Magn. Reson. 28, 463.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bodenhausen, G., and Freeman, R. 1977, J. Magn. Reson. 28, 471.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Morris, G. A., and Hall, L. D. 1981, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (in press).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bodenhausen, G., and Freeman, R. 1978, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Freeman, R., and Morris, G. A. 1978, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 684.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Müller, L., and Ernst. R. R. 1979, Mol. Phys, 38, 963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Morris, G. A., and Hall, L. D. 1981, Can. J. Chem. (in press).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Avent, A. G., and Freeman, R. 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 39, 169.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Morris, G. A. 1980, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 102, 428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Morris, G. A. 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 41, 185.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bodenhausen, G. 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 39, 175.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Müller, L. 1979, J. Magn. Reson. 36, 301.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bodenhausen, G., and Freeman, R. 1977, J. Magn. Reson. 28, 303.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wokaun, A., and Ernst, R. R. 1977, Chem. Phys. Lett. 52, 407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Maudsley, A. A., Wokaun, A., and Ernst, R. R. 1978, Chem. Phys. Lett. 55, 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bax, A., DeJong, P., Mehlkopf, A. F., and Smidt, J. 1980, Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Müller, L. 1979, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 101, 4481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wokaun, A., and Ernst, R. R. 1979, Mol. Phys. 38, 1579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wokaun, A., and Ernst, R. R. 1978, Mol. Phys. 36, 317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bodenhausen, G., Szeverenyi, N. M., Vold, R. L., and Vold, R. R. 1978, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 6265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bodenhausen, G., Vold, R. L., and Vold, R. R. 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 37, 93.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Vold, R. L., Vold. R. R., Poupko, R., and Bodenhausen, G. 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 38, 141.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Meier, B. H., and Ernst, R. R. 1979, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 101, 6441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jeener, J., Meier, B. H., Bachmann, P., and Ernst, R. R. 1979, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 4546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bodenhausen, G., Kempsell, S. P., Freeman, R., and Hill, H. D. W. 1979, J. Magn. Reson. 35, 337.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Turner, D. L. 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 39, 391.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nagayama, K., Bachmann, P., Wüthrich, K., and Ernst, R. R. 1978, J. Magn. Reson. 31, 133.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Morris, G. A., and Freeman, R. 1978, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100, 6763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Aue, W. P., Bachmann, P., Wokaun, A., and Ernst, R. R. 1978, J. Magn. Reson. 29, 523.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Freeman, R., and Morris, G. A. 1978, J. Magn. Reson. 29, 173.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bax, A., Mehlkopf, A. F., and Smidt, J. 1979, J. Magn. Reson. 35, 167.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Morris, G. A., and Freeman, R. 1979, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 101, 760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bax, A., and Freeman, R, 1980, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 102, 4849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bax, A., Freeman, R., and Kempsell, S. P. 1980, J. Magn. Reson. 41, 349.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gareth A. Morris
    • 1
  1. 1.Physical Chemistry LaboratoryOxfordEngland

Personalised recommendations