• Shirley M. Glynn
  • Kim T. Mueser
  • Stephen J. Bartels
Part of the The Springer Series in Adult Development and Aging book series (SSAD)


Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating adult mental illnesses. More psychiatric hospital beds are occupied by persons with schizophrenia than any other psychiatric disorder, and the illness accounts for the majority of admissions to psychiatric hospitals. Over the past 40 years, significant gains have been made in both the pharmacological and psychosocial treatment of schizophrenia. Despite these gains, the effects of the illness continue to be pervasive and chronic. The limited efficacy of currently available treatments for schizophrenia is illustrated by the high rate of relapse for outpatients living in the community and the poor social functioning of most patients.


Negative Symptom Antipsychotic Medication Tardive Dyskinesia Positive Symptom Auditory Hallucination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Almeida, O. P., Förstl, H., Howard, R., & David, A. S. (1993). Unilateral auditory hallucinations. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 262–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida, O. P., Howard, R. J., Levy, R., & David, A. (1995a). Psychotic states arising in late life (late paraphrenia): The role of risk factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 215–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida, O. P., Howard, R. J., Levy, R., & David, A. (1995b). Psychotic states arising in late life (late paraphrenia): Psychopathology and nosology. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 205–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., revised). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. Andreasen, N. C., Ehrhardt, J. C., Swayze, V. W., II, Alliger, R. J., Yuh, W. T., Cohen, G., & Ziebell, S. (1990). Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in schizophrenia: The pathophysiologic significance of structural abnormalities. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 35–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andreasen, N. C., Nashrallah, H. A., Dunn, V., Olson, S. C., Grove, W. M., Ehrhardt, J. C., Coffman, J. A., & Crossett, J. H. W. (1986). Structural abnormalities in the frontal system in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 136–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayllon, T., & Azrin, N. H. (1968). The token economy. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  10. Belitsky, R., & McGlashan, T. H. (1993). The manifestations of schizophrenia in late life: A dearth of data. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 683–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bellack, A. S., Morrison, R. L., Wixted, J. T., & Mueser, K. T. (1990). An analysis of social competence in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 809–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bellack, A. S., & Mueser, K. T. (1993). Psychosocial treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 317–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bellack, A. S., Turner, S. M., Hersen, M., & Luber, R. F. (1984). An examination of the efficacy of social skills training for chronic schizophrenic patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 35, 1023–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, G. W., Birley, J. L. T., & Wing, J. K. (1972). Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic disorders: A replication. British Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 241–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bulger, M. W., Wandersman, A., & Goldman, C. R. (1993). Burdens and gratifications of caregiving: Appraisal of parental care of adults with schizophrenia. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 255–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carr, V. (1988). Patients’ techniques for coping with schizophrenia: An exploratory study. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 61, 339–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Castle, D. J., & Murray, R. (1991). The neurodevelopmental basis of sex differences in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 21, 565–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Castle, D. J., & Murray, R. M. (1993). The epidemiology of late-onset schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 691–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castle, D. J., Wessely, S., Der, G., & Murray, R. (1991). The incidence of operationally defined schizophrenia in Camberwell, 1965 to 1984. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 790–794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen, K., & Kandel, D. B. (1995). The natural history of drug use from adolescence to the mid-thirties in a general population sample. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 41–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ciompi, L. (1980). The natural history of schizophrenia in the long term. British Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 413–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ciompi, L. (1987). Toward a coherence multidimensional understanding and therapy of schizophrenia: Converging new concepts. In J. S. Strauss, W. Boker, & H. D. Brenner (Eds.), Psychosocial treatment of schizophrenia: Multidimensional concepts, psychological, family, and self-help perspectives (pp. 48–62). Toronto: Hans Huber.Google Scholar
  23. Corey-Bloom, J., Jernigan, T., Archibald, S., Harris, M., & Jeste, D. (1995). Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in late-life schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 447–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Degreef, G., Ashtari, M., Wu, H., Borenstein, M., Geisler, S., & Lieberman, J. (1991). Follow-up MRI study in first episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 5, 204–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dobson, D. J. G., McDougall, G., Busheikin, J., & Aldous, J. (1995). Social skills training and symptomatology in schizophrenia. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 46, 376–380.Google Scholar
  26. Drake, R. E., Gates, C., Whitaker, A., & Cotton, P. G. (1985). Suicide among schizophrenics: A review. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 26, 90–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Drake, R. E., Mueser, K. T., Clark, R. E., & Wallach, M. A. (1996). Course, treatment, and outcome of substance disorder in persons with severe mental illness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 42–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Drake, R. E., Osher, F. C., & Wallach, M. A. (1989). Alcohol use and abuse in schizophrenia: A prospective community study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 408–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dworkin, R. H. (1994). Pain insensitivity in schizophrenia: A neglected phenomenon and some implications. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 235–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Falloon, I., Boyd, J., McGill, C., Razani, J., Moss, H., & Gilderman, A. (1982). Family management in the prevention of exacerbations of schizophrenia. New England Journal of Medicine, 306, 1437–1440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Falloon, I. R. H., & Talbot, R. E. (1981). Persistent auditory hallucinations: Coping mechanisms and implications for management. Psychological Medicine, 11, 329–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Glick, I., Clarkin, J., Spencer, J., Haas, G., Lewis, A., Peyser, J., DeMane, N., Good-Ellis, M., Harris, E., & Lestelle, V. (1985). A controlled evaluation of inpatient family intervention: I. Preliminary results of a 6-month follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 882–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Glynn, S. M. (1990). Token economy approaches for psychiatric patients: Progress and pitfalls over 25 years. Behavior Modification, 14, 383–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Glynn, S. M, Randolph, E., Eth, S., Paz, G., Shaner, A., & Strachan, A. (1990). Patient psychopathology and expressed emotion in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 877–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goldberg, T. E., Hyde, T. M., Kleinman, J. E., & Weinberger, D. R. (1993). Course of schizophrenia: Neuropsychological evidence for a static encephalopathy. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 797–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Goldstein, J. M. (1988). Gender differences in the course of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 684–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Goldstein, M., Rodnick, E., Evans, J., May, P., & Steinberg, M. (1978). Drug and family therapy in the aftercare of acute schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 1169–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harding, C. M., Brooks, G. W., Ashikaga, T., Strauss, J. S., & Breier, A. (1987a). The Vermont longitudinal study of persons with severe mental illness. I. Methodology, study sample, and overall status 32 years later. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 718–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Harding, C. M., Brooks, G. W., Ashikaga, T., Strauss, J. S, & Breier, A. (1987b). The Vermont longitudinal study of persons with severe mental illness. II. Long-term outcome of subjects who retrospectively met DSM-III criteria for schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 727–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Harris, M., & Jeste, D. (1988). Late-onset schizophrenia: An overview. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 14, 39–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hayes, R. L., Halford, W. K., & Varghese, F. T. (1995). Social skills training with chronic schizophrenic patients: Effects on community functioning. Behavior Therapy, 26, 433–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Heaton, R., Paulsen, J. S., McAdams, L. A., Kuck, J., Zisook, S., Braff, D., Harris, M. J., & Jeste, D. V. (1994). Neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenics: Relationship to age, chronicity, and dementia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 469–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Herbert, M., & Jacobson, S. (1967). Late paraphrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 461–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hogarty, G. E., Anderson, C. M., & Reiss, D. J. (1987). Family psychoeducation, social skills training, and medication in schizophrenia: The long and short of it. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 23, 12–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hogarty, G. E., Anderson, C. M., Reiss, D. J., Kornblith, S. J., Greenwald, D. P., Javna, C. D., & Madonia, M. J. (1986). Family psychoeducation, social skills training, and maintenance chemotherapy in the aftercare treatment of schizophrenia. I. One-year effects of a controlled study on relapse and expressed emotion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 633–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hogarty, G. E., Anderson, C. M., Reiss, D. J., Kornblith, S. J., Greenwald, D. P., Ulrich, R. F., & Carter, M. (1991). Family psychoeducation, social skills training, and maintenance chemotherapy in the aftercare treatment of schizophrenia. II. Two-year effects of a controlled study on relapse and adjustment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 340–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Holden, N. L. (1987). Late paraphrenia or the paraphrenias? A descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 635–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Holtzman, P. S., & Matthysse, S. (1990). The genetics of schizophrenia: A review. Psychological Science, 1, 279–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Howard, R., Castle, D., Wessely, S., & Murray, R. (1993). A comparative study of 470 cases of early-and late-onset schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 352–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hughes, J. R., Hatsukami, D. K., Mitchell, J. E., & Dahlgren, L. A. (1986). Prevalence of smoking among psychiatric outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 993–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hymas, N., Nauguib, M., & Levy, R. (1989). Late paraphrenia: A follow-up study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4, 23–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jeste, D. V., Lacro, J. P., Gilbert, P. L., Kline, J., & Kline, N. (1993). Treatment of late-life schizophrenia with neuroleptics. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 817–830.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kane, J. M. (1989). Innovations in the psychopharmacologic treatment of schizophrenia. In A. S. Bellack (Ed.), A clinical guide for the treatment of schizophrenia (pp. 43–75). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kane, J. M., Jeste, D., Barnes, T., Casey, D., Cole, J., Davis, J., Gualtieri, C., Schooler, N., Sprague, R., & Wattstein, R. (1992). Tardive dyskinesia: A task force report of the American Psychiatric Association. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  55. Kane, J. M., & Marder, S. R. (1993). Psychopharmacologic treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 287–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kane, J. M., Woerner, M., & Lieberman, J. (1988). Tardive dyskinesia: Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8, 52–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kavanagh, D. J. (1992). Recent developments in Expressed Emotion and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 601–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kay, D., & Roth, M. (1961). Environmental and hereditary factors in the schizophrenias of old age (“late paraphrenia”) and their bearing on the general problem of causation in schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Science, 107, 649–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kottgen, C., Sonnichsen, I., Mollenhauer, K., & Jurth, R. (1984). Group therapy with families of schizophrenic patients: Results of the Hamburg Camberwell-Family-Interview Study III. International Journal of Family Psychiatry, 5, 83–94.Google Scholar
  60. Kraepelin, E. (1971). Dementia Praecox and Paraphrenia (R. M. Barclay, Trans.). Huntington, NY: Robert E. Kreiger. (Original work published in 1919)Google Scholar
  61. Leff, J., Kuipers, L., Berkowitz, R., Eberlein-Vries, R., & Sturgeon, D. (1982). A controlled trial of social intervention in the families of schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 121–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lesser, I., Miller, B., Swartz, R., Boone, K., Mehringer, C., & Mena, I. (1993). Brain imaging in late-life schizophrenia and related psychoses. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 773–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lewine, R. R. J. (1988). Gender in schizophrenia. In H. A. Nasrallah (Ed.), Handbook of schizophrenia (Vol. 3, pp. 379–397). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  64. Lewine, R. R. J. (1990). A discriminant validity study of negative symptoms with a special focus on depression and antipsychotic medication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1463–1466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lewine, R. R. J., Gulley, L. R., Risch, S. C., Jewart, R., & Houpt, J. L. (1990). Sexual dimorphism, brain morphology, and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 195–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liberman, R. P., DeRisi, W. D., & Mueser, K. T. (1989). Social skills training for psychiatric patients. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  67. Liberman, R. P., & Mueser, K. T. (1989). Schizophrenia: Psychosocial treatment. In H. I. Kaplan & B. J. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (Vol. V, pp. 792–806). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  68. Liberman, R. P., Mueser, K. T., & Wallace, C. J. (1986). Social skills training for schizophrenic individuals at risk for relapse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 523–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Light, E., & Lebowitz, B. D. (1991). The elderly with chronic mental illness. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  70. MacGregor, P. (1994). Grief: The unrecognized parental response to mental illness in a child. Social Work, 39, 160–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Marder, S. R., Liberman, R. P., Wirshing, W. C., Mintz, J., Eckman, T. A., & Johnston-Cronk, K. (1995). Management of risk relapse in schizophrenia. Manuscript under review.Google Scholar
  72. May, P. R. A. (1968). Treatment of schizophrenia: A comparative study of five treatment methods. New York: Science House.Google Scholar
  73. May, P. R. A. (1984). A step forward in research on psychotherapy of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 604–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Meltzer, H. Y. (1990). Clozapine: Mechanism of action in relation to its clinical advantages. In A. Kales, C. N. Stefanis, & J. Talbott (Eds.), Recent advances in schizophrenia (pp. 237–256). New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Miller, B., Lesser, L, Mena, I., Villanueva-Meyer, J., Hill-Gutierrez, E., Boone, K., & Mehringer, C. (1992). Regional cerebral blood flow in late-life-onset psychosis. Journal of Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 5, 132–137.Google Scholar
  76. Mingyuan, Z., Heqin, Y., Chengde, Y., Jianlin, Y., Qingfeng, Y., Peijun, C., Lianfang, G., Jizhong, Y., Guangya, Q., Zhen, W., Jianhua, C., Mingua, S., Junshan, H., Longlin, W., Yi, Z., Buoying, Z., Orley, J., & Gittelman, M. (1993). Effectiveness of psychoeducation of relatives of schizophrenic patients: A prospective cohort study in five cities of China. International Journal of Mental Health, 22, 47–59.Google Scholar
  77. Mueser, K. T., Bellack, A. S., Morrison, R. L., & Wade, J. H. (1990). Gender, social competence, and symptomatology in schizophrenia: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 138–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mueser, K. T., & Berenbaum, H. (1990). Psychodynamic treatment of schizophrenia: Is there a future? [Editorial]. Psychological Medicine, 20, 253–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mueser, K. T., Douglas, M. S., Bellack, A. S., & Morrison, R. L. (1991). Assessment of enduring deficit and negative symptom subtypes in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 17, 565–582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mueser, K. T., & Gingerich, S. (1994). Coping with schizophrenia: A guide for families. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.Google Scholar
  81. Mueser, K. T., & Glynn, S. M. (1995). Behavioral family therapy for psychiatric disorders. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  82. Mueser, K. T., Sayers, S. L., Schooler, N. R., Mance, R. M., & Haas, G. L. (1994). A multi-site investigation of the reliability of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1453–1462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Mueser, K. T., Wallace, C. J., & Liberman, R. P. (1995). New developments in social skills training. Behavior Change, 12, 31–40.Google Scholar
  84. Mueser, K. T., Yarnold, P. R., & Bellack, A. S. (1992). Diagnostic and demographic correlates of substance abuse in schizophrenia and major affective disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 85, 48–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mueser, K. T., Yarnold, P. R., Levinson, D. F., Singh, H., Bellack, A. S., Kee, K., Morrison, R. L., & Yadalam, K. G. (1990). Prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia: Demographic and clinical correlates. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 31–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mulsant, B. H., Stergiou, A., Keshavan, M. S., Sweet, R. A., Rifai, A. H., Pasternak, R., & Zubenko, G. S. (1993). Schizophrenia in late life: Elderly patients admitted to an acute care psychiatric hospital. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 709–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Murray, R. M. (1994). Neurodevelopmental schizophrenia: The rediscovery of dementia praecox. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 6–12.Google Scholar
  88. Paul, G. L., & Lentz, R. J. (1977). Psychosocial treatment of chronic mental patients: Milieu versus social-learning programs. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Pearlson, G. D., Garbacz, D., Tompkin, R. H., Ahn, H. S., & Rabins, P. V. (1987). Lateral cerebral ventricular size in late onset schizophrenia. In N. E. Miller & G. D. Cohen (Eds.), Schizophrenia, paranoia, and schizophreniform disorders in later life (pp. 246–248). Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Mental Health Center on Aging.Google Scholar
  90. Pearlson, G. D., Kreger, L., Rabins, P. V., Chase, G. A., Cohen, B., Wirth, J. B., Schlaepfer, T. B., & Tune, L. E. (1989). A chart review study of late onset and early-onset schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1568–1574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Pearlson, G. D., & Rabins, P. V. (1988). The late onset psychoses—Possible risk factors. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Psychosis and Depression in the Elderly, 11, 15–33.Google Scholar
  92. Pearlson, G. D., Tune, L., Wong, D., Aylward, E., Barta, P., Powers, R., Tien, A., Chase, C. A., Harris, G., & Rabins, P. (1993). Quantitative D2 dopamine receptor PET and structural MRI changes in late-onset schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 783–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Platt, S. (1985). Measuring the burden of psychiatric illness on the family: An evaluation of some rating scales. Psychological Medicine, 15, 383–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Post, F. (1966). Persistent persecutory states of the elderly. London: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  95. Prager, S., & Jeste, D. V. (1993). Sensory impairment in late-life schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 755–772.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rabins, P. V., Pauker, S., & Thomas, J. (1984). Can schizophrenia begin after age 44? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 25, 290–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Randolph, E. T., Eth, S., Glynn, S. M., Paz, G. G., Leong, G. B., Shaner, A. L., Strachan, A., Van Vort, W., Escobar, J. L, & Liberman, R. P. (1994). Behavioural family management in schizophrenia: Outcome of a clinic-based intervention. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 501–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Roy, A., (1986). Suicide in schizophrenia. In A. Roy (Ed.), Suicide (pp. 97–112). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  99. Salokangas, R. K. R., Palo-Oja, T., & Ojanen, M. (1991). The need for social support among outpatients suffering from functional psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 21, 209–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Seeman, M. V. (1986). Current outcome in schizophrenia: Women vs. men. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 73, 609–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Seeman, M. V., & Lang, M. (1990). The role of estrogens in schizophrenia gender differences. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 185–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tamer, N., Barrowclough, C., Vaughn, C., Bamrah, J., Porceddu, K., Watts, S., & Freeman, H. (1988). The community management of schizophrenia: A controlled trial of a behavioral intervention with families to reduce relapse. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 532–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tarrier, N., Beckett, R., Harwood, S., Baker, A., Yusupoff, L., & Ugarteburu, I. (1993). A trial of two cognitive behavioral methods of treating drug-resistant residual psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients: I. Outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 524–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Taylor, A., & Dowell, D. A. (1986). Social skills training in board and care homes. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Bulletin, 10, 55–69.Google Scholar
  105. Test, M. A., & Berlin, S. B. (1981). Issues of special concern to chronically mentally ill women. Professional Psychology, 12, 136–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Test, M. A., Burke, S. S., & Wallisch, L. S. (1990). Gender differences of young adults with schizophrenic disorders in community care. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 331–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tsuang, M. T., Woolson, R. F., & Fleming, J. A. (1980). Premature deaths in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 979–983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Van Putten, T., & Marder, S. R. (1986). Low-dose treatment strategies. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 47(Suppl. 5), 12–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Vaughn, C., & Leff, J. (1976a). The influence of family and social factors on the course of psychiatric illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 129, 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vaughn, C., & Leff, J. (1976b). The measurement of expressed emotion in the families of psychiatric patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 15, 156–165.Google Scholar
  111. Vaughn, C., Snyder, K., Jones, S., Freeman, W., & Falloon, I. (1984). Family factors in schizophrenia relapse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 1169–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ventura, J., Nuechterlein, K. H., Lukoff, D., & Hardesty, J. P. (1989). A prospective study of stressful life events and schizophrenic relapse. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 407–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wallace, C. J., & Liberman, R. P. (1985). Social skills training for patients with schizophrenia: A controlled clinical trial. Psychiatry Research, 15, 239–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Weinberger, D. R., Berman, K. F., Suddath, R., & Torrey, E. F. (1992). Evidence of dysfunction of a prefrontal-limbic network in schizophrenia: A magnetic resonance imaging and regional cerebral blood flow study of discordant monozygotic twins. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 890–897.Google Scholar
  115. Xiong, W., Phillips, M. R., Hu, X., Ruiwen, W., Dai, Q., Kleinman, J., & Kleinman, A. (1994). Family-based intervention for schizophrenic patients in China: A randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 239–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yassa, R., & Suranyl-Cadotte, B. (1993). Clinical characteristics of late-onset schizophrenia and delusional disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 19, 701–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zigler, E., & Glick, M. (1986). A developmental approach to adult psychopathology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  118. Zisook, S., Heaton, R., Moranville, J., Kuck, J., Jemigan, T., & Braff, D. (1992). Past substance abuse and clinical course of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 552–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shirley M. Glynn
    • 1
  • Kim T. Mueser
    • 2
  • Stephen J. Bartels
    • 2
  1. 1.West Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California at Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Psychiatry and Community and Family MedicineDartmouth Medical SchoolConcordUSA

Personalised recommendations