Advertisement

Chronic Morbidity and Disability in the U.S. Elderly Populations

Recent Trends and Population Implications
  • Kenneth G. Manton
Part of the The Springer Series in Adult Development and Aging book series (SSAD)

Abstract

In assessing temporal changes in the health and functioning of the elderly U.S. population, and the effects of those changes on the need to manage pain and its potential psychological and physical consequences (e.g., depression, loss of motivation to maintain physical and cognitive functioning, and nutritional maintenance) in the U.S. elderly (65+) and oldest-old (85+) populations, one has to be aware that the United States has been, and will continue to be, in a very dynamic and unique period of history relative to changes in health and mortality at late ages. For example, from 1960 to 1990, the U.S. annual stroke mortality rate (age-adjusted) dropped 65.2% (from 79.7 to 27.0 deaths per 100,000 persons per annum). At ages 85 and over, stroke mortality rates dropped 55.6% from 1960 to 1990—or from 3,680.5 to 1,633.9 deaths per 100,000 persons per annum.

Keywords

Pain Management Birth Cohort England Journal American Medical Association American Geriatrics Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R. L., & Syme, S. L. (1994). Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist, 49, 15–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aronson, M., Ooi, W., Morgenstern, H., Hafner, A., Masur, D., Crystal, H., Frishman, W., Fisher, D., & Katzman, R. (1990). Women, myocardial infarction, and dementia in the very old. Neurology, 40, 1102–1106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bayo, F. R., & Faber, J. F. (1985). Mortality rates around age one hundred. Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, 35, 37–59.Google Scholar
  4. Belchetz, P. E. (1994). Hormonal treatment of postmenopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 1062–1071.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beregi, E., Regius, O., & Rajczy, K. (1991). Comparative study of the morphological changes in lymphocytes of elderly individuals and centenarians. Age and Ageing, 20, 55–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowden, M., Crawford, J., Cohen, H., & Noyama, O. (1993). A comparative study of monoclonal gammopathies and immunoglobulin levels in japanese and United States elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 41, 11–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, B. G., Zhao, X. Q., Sacco, D. E., & Albers, J. J. (1993). Lipid lowering and plaque disruption and clinical events in coronary disease. Circulation, 87, 1781–1791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burns, A., Jacoby, R., Luthert, P., & Levy, R. (1990). Cause of death in Alzheimer’s disease. Age and Ageing, 19, 341–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Butler, J., Breiman, R., Campbell, J., Lipman, H., Broome, C., & Facklam, R. (1993). Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine efficacy: An evaluation of current recommendations. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 1826–1831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Callahan, L. F., Bloch, D. A., & Pincus, T. (1992). Identification of work disability in rheumatoid arthritis: Physical, radiographic and laboratory variables do not add explanatory power to demographic and functional variables. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45, 127–1382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell, A. J., Busby, W. J., & Robertson, C. (1993). Over 80 years and no evidence of coronary heart disease: Characteristics of a survivor group. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 41, 1333–1338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994). Mortality from congestive heart failure—United States 198–1990. Journal of the American Medical Association, 271, 813–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chandra, R. K. (1992). Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on immune responses and infection in elderly subjects. The Lancet, 340, 1124–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Colantonio, A., Kasl, S. V., & Ostfeld, A. M. (1992). Level of function predicts first stroke in the elderly. Stroke, 23, 1355–1357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cook, N. R., Fellingham, S. A., & Doll, R. (1969). A mathematical model for the age distribution of cancer in man. International Journal of Cancer, 4, 93–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corti, M., Guralnik, J., Salive, M., & Sorkin, J. (1994). Serum albumin level and physical disability as predictors of mortality in older persons. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272, 1036–1042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Day, J. C. (1993). Population projections of the United States, by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 1993 to 2050. Current Population Reports (Series P25-1104). Washington, DC: USGPO.Google Scholar
  18. Dorevitch, M. I., Cossar, R. M., Bailey, F. J., Bisset, T., & Lewis, S. J. (1992). Then accuracy of self and informant ratings of physical functional capacity in the elderly. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45, 791–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Drexler, H., Reide, S. U., Munzel, T., Konig, H., Funke, E., & Just, H. (1992). Alterations of skeletal muscle in chronic heart failure. Circulation, 85, 1751–1759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dubos, R. (1965). Man adapting. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Eastell, R., Yergey, A. L., Vieira, N. E., Cedel, S. L., Kumaar, R., & Riggs, B. L. (1991). Interrelationship among vitamin D metabolism, true calcium absorption, parathyroid function, and age in women: Evidence of an age-related intestinal reistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin A action. Journal of Bone Mineral Research, 6, 125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fedson, D. (1994). Adult immunization: Summary of the national vaccine advisory committee report. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272, 1133–1137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fennerty, M. (1994). Helicobacter pylori. Archives of Internal Medicine, 154, 721–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feskens, E., Bowles, C., & Kromhout, D. (1991). Intra-and interindividual variability of glucose tolerance in an elderly population. Journal of Clinical Epidemology, 44, 947–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feskens, E., Bowles, C., & Kromhout, D. (1992). A longitudinal study on glucose tolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors: Associations within an elderly population. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45, 293–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fiatarone, M., Marks, E., Ryan, N., Merdith, C., Lipsitz, L., & Evans, W. (1990). High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263, 3029–3034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fiatarone, M., O’Neill, E., Doyle, N., Clements, K., Roberts, S., Kehayias, J., Lipsitz, L., & Evans, W. (1993). The Boston FICSIT study: The effects of resistance training and nutritional supplementation on physical frailty in the oldest old. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 41, 333–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Fiatarone, M., O’Neill, E., Ryan, N., Clements, K., Solares, G., Nelson, M., Roberts, S., Kehayias, J., Lipsitz, L., & Evans, W. (1994). Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very elderly people. New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 1769–1775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fogel, R. W. (1994). Economic growth, population theory, and physiology: The bearing of long-term processes on the making of economic policy. American Economic Review, 84, 369–395.Google Scholar
  30. Forman, D. (1990). Geographic association of helicobacter pylori antibody prevalence and gastric cancer mortality in rural China. International Journal of Cancer, 46, 608–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garrison, R. J., Gold, R. S., Wilson, P. W. R, & Kannel, W. B. (1993). Educational attainment and coronary heart disease risk: The Framingham Offspring Study. Preventive Medicine, 22, 54–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ghali, J. K., Cooper, R., & Ford, E. (1990). Trends in hospitalization rates for heart failure in the United States, 1973-1986. Archives of Internal Medicine, 150, 169–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gilbert, E. M., Sandoval, A., Larrabee, P., Renlund, D. G., O’Connell, J. B., & Bristow, M. R. (1993). Lisinopril lowers cardiac adrenergic drive and increases β-receptor density in the failing heart. Circulation, 88, 472–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gordon, D., Pobstfield, J., Garrison, R., Neaton, J., Castelli, W., Knoke, J., Jacobs, D., Bangdiwala, S., & Troyler, H. (1989). High-density lipoprotein cholestrol and cardiovascular disease: Four prospective American studies. Circulation, 79, 8–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gravenstein, S., Drinka, P., Duthie, E., Miller, B., Brown, C., Hensley, M., Circo, R., Langer, E., & Ershler, W. (1994). Efficacy of an influenza hemagglutinin-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in elderly nursing home subjects during an influenza outbreak. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 245–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Guralnik, J. M., LaCroix, A. Z., Abbott, R. D., Berkman, L. F., Satterfield, S., Evans, D. A., & Wallace, R. B. (1993). Maintaining mobility in late life: 1. Demographic characteristics and chronic conditions. American Journal of Epidemiology, 137, 845–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hannan, M. T., Anderson, J. J., Pincus, T., & Felson, D. T. (1992). Educational attainment and osteoarthritis: Differential associations with radiographics changes and symptom reporting. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45, 139–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harris, J. E. (1983). Cigarette smoking and successive birth cohorts of men and women in the United States during 1900–80. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 71, 473–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hayflick, L. (1965). The limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains. Experimental Cell Research, 37, 614–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hayflick, L., & Moorhead, P. S. (1961). The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains. Experimental Cell Research, 25, 585–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hentschel, E., Brandstatter, G., Dragosics, B., Hirschi, A., Nemec, H., Schütze, K., Taufer, M., & Wurzer, H. (1993). Effect of ranitidine and amoxicillin plus metronidazole on the eradication of helicobacter pylori and the recurrence of duodenal ulcer. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 308–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hosking, M., Warner, M., Lodbell, C., Offord, K., & Melton, L. (1989). Outcomes of surgery in patients 90 years of age and older. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 1909–1915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hosking, S., Ling, T., Chung, S., Yung, M., Cheng, A., Sung, J., & Li, A. (1994). Duodenal ulcer healing by eradication of helicobacter pylori without anti-acid treatment: Randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 343, 508–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Iso, H., Jacobs, D., Wentworth, D., Neaton, J., & Cohen, J. (1989). Serum cholesterol levels and six-year mortality from stroke in 350,977 men screened for the multiple risk factor intervention trial. New England Journal of Medicine, 320, 904–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jeune, B. (1994). Hundredarige-hale eller hemmelighed?. Gerontologi og Samfund, 10, 4–6.Google Scholar
  46. Johnson, C. L., Rifkind, B. M., Sempos, C. T., Carroll, M. D., Bachorik, P. S., Briefel, R. R., Gordon, D. J., Burt, V. L., Brown, C. D., Lippel, K., & Cleeman, J. I. (1993). Declining serum total cholesterol levels among US adults: The national health and nutrition examination surveys. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269, 3002–3008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kalra, L. (1994). The influence of stroke unit rehabilitation on functional recovery from stroke. Stroke, 25, 821–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kaplan, G., & Keil, J. (1993). Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: A review of the literature. Circulation, 88, 1973–1998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kasch, F. W., Boyer, J. L., Van Camp, S. P., Verity, L. S., & Wallace, J. P. (1993). Effect of exercise on cardiovascular ageing. Age and Ageing, 22, 5–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Katz, S., & Akpom, C. (1976). A measure of primary sociobiological functions. International Journal of Health Services, 6, 493–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Katz, S., Branch, L. G., Branson, M. H., Papsidero, J. A., Beck, J. C., & Greer, D. S. (1983). Active life expectance. New England Journal of Medicine, 309, 1218–1223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kautzky, J. E. (1995). Woman of history: At age 126, California Catholic may be oldest living person. North Carolina Catholic (Catholic News Service), p. 13, March 12.Google Scholar
  53. Keene, G. S. (1993). Mortality and morbidity after hip fractures. British Medical Journal, 307, 1248–1250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kestenbaum, B. (1992). A description of the extreme aged population based on improved Medicare enrollment data. Demography, 29, 565–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Keys, A. (1980). Seven countries: A multivariate analysis of death and coronary heart disease. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Kitzman, D., & Edwards, W. (1990). Minireview: Age-related changes in the anatomy of the normal human heart. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 45, M33–M39.Google Scholar
  57. Ko, W., Gold, J., Lazzaro, R., Zelano, J., Lang, S., Isom, O., & Kreiger, K. (1992). Survival analysis of octogenarian patients with coronary artery disease managed by elective coronary artery bypass surgery versus conventional medical treatment. Circulation, 86, II–191–II–197.Google Scholar
  58. Kukull, W., Brenner, D., Speck, C., Nochlin, D., Bowen, J., McCormick, W., Teri, L., Pfanschmidt, M., & Larson, E. (1994). Causes of death associated with Alzheimer disease: Variation by level of cognitive impairment before death. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 723–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lakatta, E. (1985). Health, disease, and cardiovascular aging. In America’s aging: Health in an older society (pp. 73–104). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  60. Lakka, T. A., Venalainen, J. M., Rauramaa, R., Salonen, R., Tuomilehto, J., & Salonen, J. (1994). Relation of leisure-time physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness to the risk of acute myocardial infarction in men. New England Journal of Medicine, 330, 1549–1554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lanska, D. J., & Mi, X. (1993). Decline in U.S. stroke mortality in the era before antihypertensive therapy. Stroke, 24, 1382–1388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lawton, M., & Brody, E. (1969). Assessment of older people: Self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontology, 9, 179–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Linnanmäki, E., Leinonen, M., Mattila, K., Nieminen, M. S., Valtonen, V., & Saikku, P. (1993). Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific circulating immune complexes in patients with chronic coronary heart disease. Circulation, 87, 1130–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lotan, R., Xu, X. C., Lippman, S. M., Ro, J. Y., Lee, J. S., Lee, J. J., & Hong, W. K. (1995). Suppression of retinoic acid receptor-β in premalignant oral lesions and its up-regulation by isotretinoin. New England Journal of Medicine, 332, 1405–1410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lubitz, J., Beebe, J., & Baker, C. (1995). Longevity and Medicare expenditures. New England Journal of Medicine, 332, 999–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Manton, K. G., Corder, L. S., & Stallard, E. (1993a). Estimates of change in chronic disability and institutional incidence and prevalence rates in the U.S. elderly population from the 1982, 1984, and 1989 National Long Term Care Survey. Journal of Gerontology Social Sciences, 47, S153–S166.Google Scholar
  67. Manton, K. G., Corder, L. S., & Stallard, E. (1993b). Changes in the use of personal assistance and special equipment 1982 to 1989: Results from the 1982 and 1989 NLTCS. The Gerontologist, 33, 168–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Manton, K. G., & Soldo, B. J. (1985). Dynamics of health changes in the oldest old: New perspective and evidence. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 63, 206–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Manton, K. G., & Stallard, E. (1982). A cohort analysis of U.S. stomach cancer mortality—1950 to 1977. International Journal of Epidemiology, 11, 49–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Manton, K. G., Stallard, E. & Corder, L. S. (1995). Changes in morbidity and chronic disability in the U.S. elderly population: Evidence from the 1982, 1984, and 1989 National Long Term Care Surveys. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences 50B(4); 5194–5204.Google Scholar
  71. Manton, K. G., Stallard, E. & Tolley, H. D. (1991a). Limits to human life expectancy: Evidence, prospects, and implications. Population and Development Review, 17(4), 603–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Manton, K. G., Stallard, E., Woodbury, M. A., & Dowd, J. E. (1994a). Time varying covariates in models of human mortality and aging: Multidimensional generalization of the Gompertz. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences, 49, B169–B190.Google Scholar
  73. Manton, K. G., Vertrees, J. C., & Clark, R. F. (1993c). A multivariate analysis of disability and health and its change over time in the National Channeling Demonstration data. The Gerontologist, 33, 610–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Manton, K. G., Woodbury, M. A., & Tolley, H. D. (1994b). Statistical applications using fuzzy sets. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  75. Manton, K. G., Wrigley, J. M., Cohen, H., & Woodbury, M. A. (1991b). Cancer mortality, aging, and patterns of comorbidity: United States, 1968 to 1986. Journal of Gerontology, 46, S225–S234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mariotti, S., Sansoni, P., Barbesino, G., Caturegli, P., Monti, D., Cossarizza, A., Giacomelli, T., Passeri, G., Fagiolo, U., Pinchera, A., & Franceschi, C. (1992). Thyroid and other organ-specific autoantibodies in healthy centenarians. The Lancet, 339, 1506–1508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Martin, D., Francis, J., Protetch, J., & Hoff, F. (1992). Time dependency of cognitive recovery with cobalamia replacement: Report of pilot study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 40, 168–172.Google Scholar
  78. Marx, M. S., Werner, P., Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Feldman, R. (1992). The relationship between low vision and performance of activities of daily living in nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40, 1018–1020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Materson, B. J., & Preston, R. A. (1994). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension: A dozen years of experience. Archives of Internal Medicine, 154, 513–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mayer, J., Jermanovich, A., Wright, B., Elder, J., Drew, J., & Williams, S. (1994). Changes in health behaviors of older adults: The San Diego Medicare preventive health project. Preventive Medicine, 23, 127–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McBean, A., Babish, D., & Prihoda, R. (1991). The utilization of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among elderly Medicare beneficiaries, 1985 through 1988. Archives of Internal Medicine, 151, 2009–2016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McCormick, W. C., Kukull, W. A., van Belle, G., Bowen, J. D., Teri, L., & Larson, E. B. (1994). Symptom patterns and comorbidity in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 517–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. McGovern, P. G., Pankow, J. S., Burke, G. L., Shahar, E., Sprafka, J. M., Folsom, A. R., & Blackburn, H. (1993). Trends in survival of hospitalized strike patients between 1970 and 1985: The Minnesota Heart Survey. Stroke, 24, 1640–1648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Moon, J., Bandy, B., & Davison, A. J. (1992). Hypothesis: Etiology of atherosclerosis and osteoporosis: Are imbalances in the calciferol endocrine system implicated. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 11, 567–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Mozar, H. N., Bal, D. G., & Farag, S. A. (1990). The natural history of atherosclerosis: An ecologic perspective. Atherosclerosis, 82, 157–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mueller, R., & Scheidt, S. (1994). History of drugs for thrombotic disease: Discovery, development, and directions for the future. Circulation, 89, 432–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Muhlbaier, L. H., Pryor, D. B., Rankin, S., Smith, L. R., Mark, D. B., Jones, R. H., Glower, D. D., Harrell, F. E., Lee, K. L., Califf, R. M., & Sabiston, D. C. (1992). Observational comparsion of event-free survival with coronary artery disease: 20 years of follow-up. Circulation Supplement 11, 86, 198–204.Google Scholar
  88. Nabulsi, A. A., Folsom, A. R., White, A., Patsch, W., Heiss, G., Wu, K. K., & Szklo, M. (1993). Association of hormone-replacement therapy with various cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 1069–1075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. National Center for Health Statistics. (1992). Health, United States, 1992. U.S. DHHS Pub. No. 92-1232. Hyattsville, MD: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  90. Niedobitek, G., & Young, L. (1994). Epstein-Barr virus persistence and virus-associated tumors. The Lancet, 343, 333–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Okamoto, Y. (1992). Health care for the elderly in Japan: Medicine and welfare in an aging society facing a crisis in long term care. British Medical Journal, 305, 403–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Omran, A. (1971). The epidemiologic transition: A theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Memorial Quarterly, 49, 509–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ooneda, G., Yoshida, Y., Suzuki, K., Shinkai, H., Hori, S., Kobori, K., Takayama, Y., & Sekiguchi, M. (1978). Smooth muscle cells in the development of plasatic arterionecrosis, arteriosclerosis, and arterial contraction. Blood Vessels, 15, 148–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Paolisso, G., D’Amore, A., Giugliano, D., Ceriello, A., & Varricchio, M. (1993). Pharmacologic doses of Vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57, 650–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Pappas, G., Queen, S., Hadden, W., & Fisher, G. (1993). The increasing disparity in mortality between socioeconomic groups in the United states, 1960 and 1986. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 103–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Paul, S. D., Kuntz, K. M., Eagle, K. A., & Weinstein, M. C. (1994). Costs and effectiveness of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in patients with congestive heart failure. Archives of Internal Medicine, 154, 1143–1149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pennypacker, L., Allen, R., Kelly, J., Mathews, L., Grigsby, J., Kaye, K., Lindenbaum, J., & Stabler, S. (1992). High prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in elderly outpatients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40, 1197–1204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Perls, T. (1994). The oldest old. Scientific American, 274, 70–75.Google Scholar
  99. Perls, T., Morris, J., Ooi, W., & Lipsitz, L. (1993). The relationship between age, gender and cognitive performance in the very old: The effect of selective survival. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 41, 1193–1201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Pollare, T., Lithell, H., & Berne, C. (1989). A comparison of the effects of hydroclorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension. New England Journal of Medicine, 321, 868–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pouleur, H., Rousseau, M., van Eyll, C., Stoleru, L., Hayashida, W., Udelson, J., Dolan, N., Kinan, D., Gallagher, P., Ahn, S., Benedict, C., Yusuf, S., & Konstam, M. (1993). Effects of long-term enalapril therapy on left ventricular diastolic properties in patients with depressed ejection fraction. Circulation, 88, 481–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Prasad, K., & Edwards-Prasad, J. (1992). Vitamin E and cancer prevention: Recent advances and future potentials. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 11, 487–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Preston, S. H. (1992). Cohort succession and the future of the oldest old. In R. M. Suzman, D. P. Willis, & K. G. Manton (Eds.), The oldest old (pp. 50–57). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Radl, J., Sepers, J., Skvaril, F., Morell, A., & Hijmans, W. (1975). Immunoglobulin patterns in humans over 95 years of age. Clinical Experimental Immunology, 22, 84–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Reuben, D., Siu, A., & Kimpau, S. (1992). The predictive validity of self-support and performance-based measures of function and health. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 47, M106–M110.Google Scholar
  106. Robine, J. M, & Ritchie, K. (1991). Healthy life expectancy: Evaluation of global indicator of change in population health. British Medical Journal, 302, 457–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rodin, J. (1986a). Aging and health: Effects of the sense of control. Science, 233, 1271–1276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rodin, J. (1986b). Health, control, and aging. In M. Baltes & P. Baltes (Eds.) Aging and control (pp. 139–165). Hillsdale, NJ: Eribaum.Google Scholar
  109. Rubenstein, L., & Josephson, K. (1989). Hospital based geriatric assessment in the United States: The Sepulveda VA Geriatric Evaluation Unit. Gerontology: Special Supplement, 7, 74–79.Google Scholar
  110. Salive, M. E., Guralnik, J., Glynn, R. J., Christen, W., Wallace, R. B., & Ostfeld, A. M. (1994). Association of visual impairment with mobility and physical function. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 287–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sempos, C. T., Cleeman, J. I., Carroll, M. D., Johnson, C. L., Bachorik, P. S., Gordon, D. J., Burt, V. L., Briefel, R. R., Brown, C. D., Lippel, K., & Rifkind, B. M. (1993). Prevalence of high blood cholesterol among U.S. adults: An updated based on guidelines from the second report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269, 3009–3014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Shinton, R., & Sagar, G. (1993). Lifelong exercise and stroke. British Medical Journal, 307, 231–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Skoog, I., Nilsson, L., Palmertz, B., Andreasson, L. A., & Svanborg, A. (1993). A population-based study of dementia in 85-year-olds. New England Journal of Medicine, 328, 153–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction Investigators. (1991). Effect of Enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. New England Journal of Medicine, 325, 293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Stampfer, M. J., Colditz, G. A., Willett, W. C., Manson, J. E., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. E., & Hennekens, C. H. (1991). Postmenopausal estrogen therapy and cardiovascular disease: Ten-year follow-up from the Nurses’ Health Study. New England Journal of Medicine, 325, 756–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stern, Y., Gurland, B., Tatemichi, T. K., Tang, M. X., Wilder, D., & Mayeux, R. (1994). Influence of education and occupation on the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 271, 1004–1010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sullivan, D. (1971). A single index of mortality and morbidity. HSMHA Health Reports, 86, 347–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Takata, H., Suzuki, M., Ishii, T., Sekiguchi, S., & Iri, H. (1987). Influence of major histocompatability complex region genes on human longevity among Okinawan-Japanese centenarians and nonagenarians. The Lancet, 2, 824–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tanaka, H., Ueda, Y., Hayashi, M., Date, C., Baba, T., Yamashita, H., Shoji, H., Tanaka, Y., Owada, K., & Detels, R. (1982). Risk factor for cerebral hemorrage and cerebral infarction in a Japanese rural community. Stroke, 13, 62–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Thorn, D. H., Grayston, J. T., Siscovick, D. S., Wang, S. P., Weiss, N. S., & Daling, J. R. (1992). Association of prior infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 68–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Thorns, W. S. (1873). Human longevity, its facts and its fictions. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  122. Townsend, J., Roderick, P., & Cooper, J. (1994). Cigarette smoking by socioeconomic group, sex, and age: Effects of price, income, and health publicity. British Medical Journal, 309, 923–927.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ueda, K., Hasuo, Y., Kihohara, Y., Wada, J., Kawano, H., Kato, I., Fujii, I., Yanai, T., Omae, T., & Fujishima, M. (1988). Intracerebral haemorrage in a Japanese community, Hisye: Incidence, changing patterns during long term follow-up and related factors. Stroke, 19, 48–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Ueshima, H., Iida, M., Shimamoto, T., Konishi, M., Tsujioka, K., Tanigaki, M., Nakanishi, N., Ozawa, H., Kojima, S., & Komachi, Y. (1980). Multivariate analysis of risk factor for stroke: Eight-year follow-up study of farming villages in Akita, Japan. Preventive Medicine, 9, 722–940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1993). Statistical abstract of the United States, 1993 (113th Ed.). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  126. Vaupel, J. W., & Jeune, B. (1994). The emergence and proliferation of centenarians. Aging Research Unit, Odense University, Medical School, Odense, Denmark.Google Scholar
  127. Wieland, D., Rubenstein, L. Z., Hedrick, S. C., Reuben, D. B., & Buchner, D. M. (1994). Inpatient geriatric evaluation and management units (GEMs) in the veterans health system: Diamonds in the rough? Journal of Gerontology, 49, M195–M200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Woodbury, M. A., Manton, K. G., & Tolley, H. D. (1994). A general model for statistical analysis using fuzzy sets: Sufficient conditions for identifiability and statistical properties. Information Sciences, 1, 149–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zaman, Z., Roche, S., Fielden, P., Frost, P., Niriella, D., & Cayley, A. (1992). Plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E carotenoids in Alzheimer’s disease. Age and Ageing, 21, 91–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth G. Manton
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Demographic StudiesDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations