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Significance of Endophyte Toxicosis and Current Practices in Dealing with the Problem in Europe

  • G. C. Lewis

Abstract

Grassland generally is categorized as either “temporary” or “permanent”, depending on whether it was sown within five years or five or more years previously. In some European countries, e.g. UK, France, Germany and Spain, 80–95% of grassland is permanent, whereas in other countries, e.g. Finland and Sweden, it is less than 25%. The total area of permanent grassland in Europe (not including the Russian Federation or former Soviet Union countries) is approximately 100 million ha, which represents about 15% of the total land area (European Commission, 1995). Permanent grassland has a highly variable botanical composition. No data was found for the area of temporary grassland in Europe, but data for the amount of grass seed for domestic use exists for four European countries, Denmark, France, Italy and the UK (National Institute of Agricultural Botany, unpublished). The total weight of seed was 58,400 t for Lolium spp., 2,500 t for Festuca arundinacea and 99 t for F. pratensis, which indicates the dependence on Lolium spp. in many European countries.

Keywords

Endophytic Fungus Tall Fescue Perennial Ryegrass Integrate Control Permanent Grassland 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. C. Lewis
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Grassland and Environmental ResearchNorth Wyke Research StationOkehampton, DevonUK

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