Where is the Observer in IT Strategy and Systems?

  • Steve Armstrong
  • Aidan Ward


Systems thinking has placed much stress on where the observer is relative to the observed system. In business organisations technical systems are usually held to be an objective domain which the IT strategist can deal with on the basis of his observations and his budgets: he is outside the system.


Parent Company Strategic Choice Business Requirement Official Strategy Emergent Strategy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steve Armstrong
    • 1
  • Aidan Ward
    • 2
  1. 1.Computing Department, Faculty of Maths and ComputingThe Open UniversityMilton KeynesEngland
  2. 2.Antelope PartnershipEast Dulwich, LondonUK

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