Psychosocial Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury
More than 50,000 people suffer traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the United States each year (Kim, 1987). The size of the population affected by TBI is alarming when one considers that this number increases cumulatively across time (Volpe & McDowell, 1990) and that survival rates are also increasing due to medical advances (Christensen, Pinner, Moller Pedersen, Teasdale, & Trexler, 1992). Unfortunately, the majority of TBI individuals are left with permanent and adverse personality change and cognitive impairment (Lezak, 1978). As a consequence of these changes, persons who sustain TBI often are unable to maintain their preinjury social roles (Oddy, Humphrey, & Uttley, 1978b) and experience reactive emotional problems (Godfrey, Partridge, Knight, & Bishara, 1993b). The vast majority of TBI patients are discharged home after hospitalization (Liss & Willer, 1990), and their families serve as primary caregivers (Brooks, 1991). Not surprisingly, many families experience chronic burden, which tends to worsen with the increasing time after injury (Livingston, Brooks, & Bond, 1985a).
KeywordsTraumatic Brain Injury Memory Impairment Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic Brain Injury Patient Personality Change
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