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Phenotype and Function of T Cells in HIV Disease

  • Janis V. Giorgi

Overview

Phenotype refers to the unique collection of antigens expressed on the surface of a cell. For clinical and research purposes, phenotypic analyses on lymphocytes are typically done using flow cytometry on peripheral blood and can be done on lymphoid tissue. Flow cytometric measurements utilize monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against cell surface differentiation antigens to enumerate lymphocyte subsets that have distinct functional activities, lineages, and maturational states (Giorgi, 1992b; Giorgi et al., 1992). Major lymphocyte subtypes (CD4+ T, CD8+ T, natural killer, and B cells) as well as subsets of these populations can be discriminated.

Cell surface molecules recognized by mAb include those that react with maturation or activation antigens or receptors for cytokines. The close correlation of lymphocyte phenotype with function and differentiation state results from the fact that many cell surface molecules play a role in specific lymphocyte functions such as antigen recognition, lysis of virus-infected cells, and immune regulation. Lymphocyte function can be measured in vitro in assays designed to detect these activities.

Each lymphocyte subset has distinct functions that are reflected in its phenotype. In the past, most of our knowledge about which immune functions were mediated by phenotypically identified lymphocyte subsets came from studies on healthy control donors. Investigations of HIV infection have provided a unique opportunity to identify which cells produce cytokines or mediate effector functions in vivo during antigen stimulation. Consequently, insight into the association between lymphocyte function and cell surface marker expression has been extended significantly.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Lymphocyte Subset 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janis V. Giorgi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer CenterUCLA AIDS Institute and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, UCLA Schools of Medicine and Public HealthLos AngelesUSA

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