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Lymphocyte Adhesion Coreceptors and their Roles in HIV-1 Replication

  • Jeffrey A. Ledbetter

Abstract

T cells recognize and respond to antigen during contact with B cells and other antigen-presenting cells (APC) (for review see Clark and Ledbetter, 1994). The specificity of the T-cell response is determined when the T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes peptide antigens bound to MHC class I or class II molecules on the APC. However, engagement of the TCR alone is not sufficient for induction of a T-cell response (Bretscher and Cohn, 1970; Mueller et al., 1989; Tan et al., 1993). The affinity of the TCR for peptide/MHC complexes is low (Matsui et al., 1991), and APCs may express only small numbers of each immunogenic peptide. Although the low affinity and high off rate of TCR binding may allow multiple interactions with a restricted number of antigens (Valitutti et al., 1995), additional adhesion interactions are required to stabilize the T cell/APC cellular conjugates (Clark and Ledbetter, 1994). These accessory adhesion events also supplement and modify the intracellular signals that are transmitted to both the T cell and the APC. Altered signals to T cells that may lead to inactivation or anergy can occur either by specific blocking of adhesion receptors (Ledbetter et al., 1995) or via presentation of modified peptide antigens (Madrenas et al., 1995; Sloan-Lancaster et al., 1994). Our understanding of these accessory receptor interactions that make critical contributions to the T cell and APC activation response continues to grow rapidly. Here I will review some of the better-characterized adhesion and signaling molecules of T cells and APC., including CD4, CD8, CD2, CD28, CD40, and β2 integrins. These molecules and their counterreceptors are important for replication of HIV-1, since the signals they provide have dramatic effects on the amounts of virus released from stimulated T cells (Diegel et al., 1993; Smithgall et al., 1995; Pinchuk et al., 1994; Moran et al., 1993).

Keywords

Tyrosine Phosphorylation Severe Combine Immune Deficiency Cell Antigen Receptor Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Antigen Receptor Stimulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey A. Ledbetter
    • 1
  1. 1.Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research InstituteUSA

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