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Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Function in HIV

  • Shyh-Dar Shyur
  • Harry R. Hill

Abstract

The phagocytic system belongs to the nonspecific immune system, which includes polymorphonuclear leukocytes (e. g., neutrophils, eosinophils) and mononuclear phagocytes (e. g., circulating monocytes, tissue macrophages, and fixed macrophages). The major phagocytic functions include adherence to endothelium and aggregation, emigration or diapedesis, chemotaxis and random motility, attachment, phagocytosis, degranulation, and microbicidal activity. Neutrophils are the first line of defense against bacterial invasion of the surface barriers; they appear in the inflammatory focus within a few hours. The differentiation and maturation of neutrophils in the bone marrow requires about 2 weeks. This process can be divided into two phases. The first week of neutrophil development is a proliferative phase with cell division. The cells of the myeloid series evolve from the myeloblast to promyelocyte and then to the myelocyte. During this process neutrophils develop their various cytoplasmic granules. Then a maturation phase follows during the second week with no cell division. During this phase neutrophils mature from meta-myelocytes to band forms and then to the segmented neutrophils (Gallin, 1993). The recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation is initiated by the local production of bacterium-derived attractants, inflammatory cytokines, and other host-derived factors. These factors will initiate rolling of neutrophils along the endothelium, which is mediated by members of the selectin family. The selectin family include E- and P-selectin, which are expressed on the surface of activated endothelial cells, and L-selectin, which is constitutively expressed on neutrophils. The carbohydrate ligands for E- and P-selectin are sialyl-Lewis X, which is the basic defect in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II, an abnormality that reflects a general defect in fucose metabolism (Lowe et al., 1990) within the cell-surface glycoproteins and glycolipids of the neutrophil.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shyh-Dar Shyur
    • 1
  • Harry R. Hill
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsMackay Memorial HospitalTaipeiTaiwan, Republic of China
  2. 2.Divisions of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Departments of Pathology and PediatricsUniversity of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake CityUSA

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