Platelet-Activating Factor Synthesis and Its Role in Salivary Glands
Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) was originally described as a substance released from activated basophils. It was then detected in a variety of inflammatory and immune-related cells, e.g. polymorphonuclear leucocytes, monocytes, macrophages and plateletes. PAF is considered to be a mediator in anaphylaxis and inflammatory responses. Moreover, PAF production has been demonstrated in a wider variety of cells and tissues, and it has been suggested that PAF plays various physiological and pathological roles. For example, PAF may play a role in stimulation-secretion coupling including neuron tissues in which PAF increases intracellular free Ca2+ concentration([Ca2+]i)1–6 and modulates neurotransmitter release2,3, 6–8, and is suggested its contribution to long-term potentiation fomation in the hippocampus 9,10 or enhanced neurotransmitter release in pathological conditions such as ischemia or convulsions. Soling et al11 has reported that PAF stimulates amylase release in the exocrine salivary gland and the pancreas. The capacity of cells from exocrine glands to produce PAF in response to physiological stimulations12,13 and the presence of PAF in human saliva14 have also been demonstrated. The present study examines the regulation of PAF biosynthesis and its role in secretory responses in salivary glands.
KeywordsSalivary Gland Submandibular Gland Polymorphonuclear Leucocyte Exocrine Secretion Phosphoinositide Turnover
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