Advertisement

Stone Tools pp 159-179 | Cite as

Lithic Analysis and Questions of Cultural Complexity

The Maya
  • Jay K. Johnson
Part of the Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology book series (IDCA)

Abstract

The ways that stone tool production and use were organized among the Maya and in the southeastern United States were not much different from one another, despite obvious differences in cultural complexity. In both regions, the bulk of the stone tools produced during the periods of sedentary, centralized control were flakes derived from ad hoc cores. One of the most vexing problems has been the role of craft specialization and the degree to which it was controlled by the elite among the Maya. An analysis of obsidian artifacts from the Classic site of Nohmul and a review of other data on stone tool manufacture lead to the conclusion that specialized production of elite paraphernalia may have been centrally controlled, while the manufacture of subsistence items was based on direct, consumer-producer relationships. A general lesson derived from looking at the Maya from the Southeast is the need to be careful about the way that the presence of hieroglyphs influences our reading of the lithic record.

Keywords

Stone Tool American Antiquity Lithic Assemblage Elite Control Lithic Artifact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, R. E. W. 1970. Suggested Classic Period Occupational Specialization in the Southern Maya Lowlands. In Monographs and Papers in Maya Archaeology, edited by W. R. Bullard, Jr., pp. 487-502. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 61. Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  2. Ahler, S. A. 1983. Microwear Analysis and Evaluation of the Chipped Stone Tool Classification System for the University of West Florida Midden Mound Project. In Archaeological Investigations in the Upper Tombigbee Valley, Mississippi, Phase I, edited by J. A. Bense, Vol. 4: 111E1–IIIE36. University of West Florida, Office of Cultural and Archaeological Research, Report of Investigations, Number 3.Google Scholar
  3. Aldenderfer, M. 1991a. The Structure of Late Classic Lithic Assemblages in the Central Peten Lakes Region, Guatemala. In Maya Stone Tools: Selected Papers from the Second Maya Lithic Conference, edited by T. R. Hester and H. J. Shafer, pp. 119–142. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  4. Aldenderfer, M. 1991b. Functional Evidence for Lapidary and Carpentry Craft Specialties in the Late Classic of the Central Peten Lakes Region. Ancient Mesoamerica 2: 205–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aldenderfer, M. S., L. R. Kimball, and A. Sievert. 1989. Microwear Analysis in the Maya Lowlands: The Use of Functional Data in a Complex-Society Setting. Journal of Field Archaeology 16: 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker, M. J. 1973. Archaeological Evidence for Occupational Specialization among the Classic-Period Maya at Tikal, Guatemala. American Antiquity 38: 396–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boksenbaum, M. W. 1980. Basic Mesoamerican Stone-Working: Nodule Smashing? Lithic Technology 9: 12–26.Google Scholar
  8. Bradley, B. A. 1975. Lithic Reduction Sequences: A Glossary and Discussion. In Lithic Technology: Making and Using Stone Tools, edited by E. Swanson, pp. 5–14. Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  9. Brumfiel, E. M. 1987. Elite and Utilitarian Crafts in the Aztec State. In Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies, edited by E. M. Brumfiel and T. K. Earle, pp. 102–118. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, J. 1987. Politics, Prismatic Blades, and Mesoamerican Civilization. In The Organization of Core Technology, edited by J. K. Johnson and C. A. Morrow, pp. 259–284. Westview Press, Boulder.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, J. 1989. Hacia una Definicion de Tallares. In La Obsidiana en Mesoamerica, edited by M. Gaxiola G. and J. Clark, pp. 213–218. Instituto Nacional de Anthropologia e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, J., and D. Bryant. 1991. The Production of Chert Projectile Points at Herba Buena, Chiapas, Mexico. In Maya Stone Tools: Selected Papers from the Second Maya Lithic Conference, edited by T. R. Hester and H. J. Shafer, pp. 85–102. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  13. Coe, W. R. 1959. Piedras Negras Archaeology: Artifacts, Caches, and Burials. Museum Monographs, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  14. Coe, W. R. 1965. Artifacts of the Maya Lowlands. In Archaeology of Southern Mesoamerica, edited by G. R. Willey and R. Wauchope, pp. 594–602. Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. 3. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  15. Collins, M. B. 1975. Lithic Technology as a Means of Processual Inference. In Lithic Technology: Making and Using Stone Tools, edited by E. Swanson, pp. 15–34. Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  16. Deal, M., and B. Hayden. 1987. The Persistence of Pre-Columbian Lithic Technology in the Form of Glassworking. In Lithic Studies among the Contemporary Highland Maya, edited by B. Hayden, pp. 235–331. University of Arizona Press, Tuscon.Google Scholar
  17. de Montmollin, O. 1989. The Archaeology of Political Structure: Settlement Analysis in a Classic Maya Polity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dreiss, M. L. 1988. Obsidian at Colha, Belize: A Technological Analysis and Distributional Study Based on Trace Element Data. Papers of the Colha Project 1: 4, San Antonio.Google Scholar
  19. Dreiss, M. L., and D. O. Brown. 1989. Obsidian Exchange Patterns in Belize. In Prehistoric Maya Economies, edited by P. A. McAnany and B. L. Isaac, pp. 57–90. Research in Economic Anthropology, Supplement 4, JAI Press, Inc., Greenwich.Google Scholar
  20. Earle, T. K. 1987. Specialization and the Production of Wealth: Hawaiian Chiefdoms and the Inka Empire. In Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies, edited by E. M. Brumfiel and T. K. Earle, pp. 64–75. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  21. Ericson, J. E. 1984. Towards the Analysis of Lithic Production Systems. In Prehistoric Quarries and Lithic Production, edited by J. E. Ericson and B. A. Purdy pp. 1–10. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fedick, S. 1991. Chert Tool Production and Consumption among Classic Period Maya Households. In Maya Stone Tools: Selected Papers from the Second Maya Lithic Conference, edited by T. R. Hester and H. J. Shafer, pp. 103–118. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  23. Ford, A., and S. Fedick. 1992. Prehistoric Maya Settlement Patterns in the Upper Belize River Area: Initial Results of the Belize River Archaeological Settlement Survey. Journal of Field Archaeology 19: 35–49.Google Scholar
  24. Ford, A., and K. Olson. 1989. Aspects of Ancient Maya Household Economy: Variation in Chipped Stone Production and Consumption. In Prehistoric Maya Economies, edited by P. A. McAnany and B. L. Isaac, pp. 185–214. Research in Economic Anthropology, Supplement 4, JAI Press, Inc., Greenwich.Google Scholar
  25. Fowler, W. R., Jr. 1991. Lithic Analysis as a Means of Processual Inference in Southern Mesoamerica: A Review of Recent Research. In Maya Stone Tools: Selected Papers from the Second Maya Lithic Conference, edited by T. R. Hester and H. J. Shafer, pp. 1–19. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  26. Fowler, W. R., Jr., A. A. Demarest, H. V. Michel, and F. H. Stross. 1989. Sources of Obsidian from El Mirador, Guatemala: New Evidence on Preclassic Maya Interaction. American Anthropologist 91: 158–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Freidel, D. A. 1981. The Political Economies of Residential Dispersion among the Lowland Maya. In Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns, edited by W. Ashmore, pp. 371–384. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  28. Fry, R. E. 1980. Models of Exchange for Major Shape Classes of Lowland Maya Pottery. In Models and Methods in Regional Exchange, edited by R. E. Fry, pp. 3–18. Society for American Archaeology Papers 1. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  29. Gibson, E. 1986. Diachronic Patterns of Lithic Production, Use and Exchange in the Southern Maya Lowlands. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  30. Hammond, N. 1972. Obsidian Trade Routes in the Mayan Area. Science 178: 1092–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hammond, N. 1983. Nohmul, Belize: 1982 Investigations. Journal of Field Archaeology 10: 245–254.Google Scholar
  32. Hammond, N. 1985. Nohmul: A Prehistoric Maya Community in Belize. Excavations 1973–1983. BAR International Series 250, Oxford.Google Scholar
  33. Hammond, N., C. Clark, M. Horton, M. Hodges, L. McNatt, L. J. Kosakowsky and K. A. Pyburn. 1985. Excavation and Survey at Nohmul, Belize, 1983. Journal of Field Archaeology 12: 177–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hammond, N., S. Donaghey, C. Gleason, J. C. Staneko, D. Van Tuerenhout, and L. J. Kosakowsky 1987. Excavations at Nohmul, Belize, 1985. Journal of Field Archaeology 14: 257–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hammond, N., K. A. Pyburn, J. Rose, J. C. Staneko, and D. Muyskens. 1988. Excavation and Survey at Nohmul, Belize, 1986. Journal of Field Archaeology 15: 1–15.Google Scholar
  36. Hay, C. A. 1978. Kaminaljuyu Obsidian: Lithic Analysis and the Economic Organization of a Prehistoric Maya Chiefdom. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  37. Hayden, B. 1987. Past to Present Uses of Stone Tools and Their Effects on Assemblage Characteristics. In Lithic Studies among the Contemporary Highland Maya, edited by B. Hayden, pp. 160–234. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  38. Hayden, B., and R. Gargett. 1990. Big Man, Big Heart?: A Mesoamerican View of the Emergence of Complex Society. Ancient Mesoamerica 1: 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hester, T. R. 1985. The Maya Lithic Sequence in Northern Belize. In Stone Tool Analysis: Essays in Honor of Don E. Crabtree, edited by M. G. Plew, J. C. Woods and M. G. Pavasic, pp. 187–210. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  40. Hester, T. R., and N. Hammond (editors). 1976. Maya Lithic Studies: Papers from the 1976 Belize Field Symposium. Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas, San Antonio.Google Scholar
  41. Hester, T. R., and H. J. Shafer. 1992. Lithic Workshops Revisited: Comments on Moholy-Nagy. Latin American Antiquity 3: 243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hester, T. R., and H. J. Shafer (editors). 1991. Maya Stone Tools: Selected Papers from the Second Maya Lithic Conference. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  43. Hester, T. R., H. J. Shafer, and T. Berry. 1991. Technological and Comparative Analyses of the Chipped Stone Artifacts from El Pozito, Belize. In Maya Stone Tools: Selected Papers from the Second Maya Lithic Conference, edited by T. R. Hester and H. J. Shafer, pp. 67–84. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  44. Johnson, J. K. 1976. Chipped Stone Artifacts from the Western Maya Periphery. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  45. Johnson, J. K. 1979. Archaic Biface Manufacture: Production Failures, a Chronicle of the Misbegotten. Lithic Technology 8: 25–35.Google Scholar
  46. Johnson, J. K. 1981. Lithic Procurement and Utilization Trajectories: Analysis, Yellow Creek Nuclear Power Plant Site, Tishomingo County, Mississippi, Vol. II. Publications in Anthropology 28. Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.Google Scholar
  47. Johnson, J. K. 1984. Measuring Prehistoric Quarry Site Activity in Northeastern Mississippi. In Prehistoric Chert Exploitation: Studies from the Midcontinent, edited by B. M. Butler and E. E. May, pp. 225-235. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Occasional Paper 2.Google Scholar
  48. Johnson, J. K. 1985. Typological Structure in Maya Lithic Analysis: A Historic Perspective. In Contributions to the Archaeology and Ethnology of Greater Mesoamerica, edited by W. J. Folan, pp. 188–204. Southern Illinois Press, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  49. Johnson, J. K. 1991. Obsidian: A Technological Analysis. In Cuello: An Early Classic Maya Community in Belize, edited by N. Hammond, pp. 169–172. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  50. Johnson, J. K. 1993. Lithic Analysis. In The Development of Southeastern Archaeology, edited by J. K. Johnson, pp. 36–52. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.Google Scholar
  51. Johnson, J. K., and S. O. Brookes. 1988. Rocks from the Northeast: Archaic Exchange in North Mississippi. Mississippi Archaeology 23: 53–63.Google Scholar
  52. Johnson, J. K., and S. O. Brookes. 1989. Benton Points, Turkey Tails and Cache Blades: Middle Archaic Exchange in the Midsouth. Southeastern Archaeology 8: 134–145.Google Scholar
  53. Kelly, R. L. 1988. The Three Sides of a Biface. American Antiquity 53: 717–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kidder, A. V. 1932. The Artifacts of Pecos. Southwestern Expedition, Phillips Academy, Papers 6. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  55. Kidder, A. V. 1947. The Artifacts of Uaxactun, Guatemala. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 576.Google Scholar
  56. Lewenstein, S. 1987. Stone Tool Use at Cerros. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  57. McAnany, P. A. 1989a. Stone-Tool Production and Exchange in the Eastern Maya Lowlands: The Consumer Perspective from Pulltrouser Swamp, Belize. American Antiquity 54: 332–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McAnany, P. A. 1989b. Economic Foundations of Prehistoric Maya Society: Paradigms and Concepts. In Prehistoric Maya Economies, edited by P. A. McAnany and B. L. Isaac, pp. 347–372. Research in Economic Anthropology, Supplement 4, JAI Press, Inc., Greenwich.Google Scholar
  59. McAnany, P. A., and B. L. Isaac (editors). 1989. Prehistoric Maya Economies. Research in Economic Anthropology, Supplement 4, JAI Press, Inc., Greenwich.Google Scholar
  60. McSwain, R. 1991. A Comparative Evaluation of the Producer-Consumer Model for Lithic Exchange in Northern Belize, Central America. Latin American Antiquity 2: 337–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mallory, J. K. 1984. Late Classic Maya Economic Specialization: Evidence from the Copan Obsidian Assemblage. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  62. Mallory, J. K. 1986. “Workshops” and “Specialized Production” in the Production of Maya Chert Tools: A Response to Shafer and Hester. American Antiquity 51: 152–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Michels, J. W. 1976. Some Sociological Observations on Obsidian Production at Kaminaljuyu, Guatemala. In Maya Lithic Studies: Papers from the 1976 Belize Eield Symposium, edited by T. R. Hester and N. Hammond, pp. 109-118. Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas, San Antonio.Google Scholar
  64. Michels, J. W. 1979. The Kaminaljuyu Chiefdom. Pennsylvania State University Monograph Series on Kaminaljuyu. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.Google Scholar
  65. Mitchum, B. 1989. Obsidian as a Non-Essential Resource. In La Obsidiana en Mesoamerica, edited by M. Gaxiola G. and J. Clark, pp. 375–378. Instituto Nacional de Anthropologia e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
  66. Mitchum, B. 1991. Lithic Artifacts from Cerros, Belize: Production, Consumption, and Trade. In Maya Stone Tools: Selected Papers from the Second Maya Lithic Conference, edited by T. R. Hester and H. J. Shafer, pp. 45–54. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  67. Moholy-Nagy, H. 1976. Spatial Distribution of Flint and Obsidian Artifacts at Tikal, Guatemala. In Maya Lithic Studies: Papers from the 1976 Belize Eield Symposium, edited by T. R. Hester and N. Hammond, pp. 91-108. Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas, San Antonio.Google Scholar
  68. Moholy-Nagy, H. 1989. Who Used Obsidian at Tikal? In La Obsidiana en Mesoamerica, edited by M. Gaxiola G. and J. Clark, pp. 379–390. Instituto Nacional de Anthropologia e Historia, Mexico City.Google Scholar
  69. Moholy-Nagy, H. 1990. The Misidentification of Mesoamerican Lithic Workshops. Latin American Antiquity 1: 268–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Moholy-Nagy, H. 1994. Tikal Material Culture: Artifacts and Social Structure at a Classic Lowland Maya City. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  71. Moholy-Nagy, H., F. Asaro, and F. H. Stross. 1984. Tikal Obsidian: Sources and Typology. American Antiquity 49: 104–117.Google Scholar
  72. Morrow, C. A. 1987. Blades and Cobden Chert: A Technological Argument for their Role as Markers of Regional Identification during the Hopewell Period in Illinois. In The Organization of Core Technology, edited by J. K. Johnson and C. A. Morrow, pp. 119–150. Westview Press, Boulder.Google Scholar
  73. Muller, J. 1984. Mississippian Specialization and Salt. American Antiquity 49: 489–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Neivens, M., and D. Libbey. 1976. An Obsidian Workshop at El Pozito, Northern Belize. In Maya Lithic studies: Papers from the 1976 Belize Eield Symposium, edited by T. R. Hester and N. Hammond, pp. 137-149. Center for Archaeological Research, University of Texas, San Antonio.Google Scholar
  75. Odell, G. H. 1994. The Role of Stone Bladelets in Middle Woodland Society American Antiquity 59: 102–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Parry, W. J., and R. L. Kelly. 1987. Expedient Core Technology. In The Organization of Core Technology, edited by J. K. Johnson and C. A. Morrow, pp. 285–304. Westview Press, Boulder.Google Scholar
  77. Potter, D. R. 1991. Lithic Analysis as a Means of Processual Inference in Southern Mesoamerica: A Review of Recent Research. In Maya Stone Tools: Selected Papers from the Second Maya Lithic Conference, edited by T. R. Hester and H. J. Shafer, pp. 21–29. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  78. Prentice, G. 1985. Economic Differentiation among Mississippian Farmsteads. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 10: 77–122.Google Scholar
  79. Puleston, O. S. 1969. Functional Analysis of a Workshop Tool Kit from Tikal. M.A. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  80. Pyburn, K. A. 1988. The Settlement of Nohmul: Development of a Prehispanic Maya Community in Northern Belize. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona.Google Scholar
  81. Rathje, W. L. 1972. Praise the Gods and Pass the Metates: A Hypothesis of the Development of Lowland Rainforest Civilization in Middle America. In Contemporary Archeology, edited by M. Leone, pp. 365–392. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  82. Rice, P. M. 1987. Economic Change in the Lowland Maya Late Classic Period. In Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies, edited by E. M. Brumfiel and T. K. Earle, pp. 76–85. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  83. Ricketson, O. G., Jr., and E. B. Ricketson. 1937. Uaxactun, Guatemala, Group E, 1926–1931. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 477.Google Scholar
  84. Rovner, I. 1974. Evidence for a Secondary Obsidian Workshop at Mayapan, Yucatan. Newsletter of Lithic Technology 3: 19–27.Google Scholar
  85. Rovner, I. 1975. Lithic Sequences from the Maya Lowlands. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.Google Scholar
  86. Sabloff, J. A. 1990. The New Archaeology and the Ancient Maya. W. H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  87. Semenov, S. A. 1964. Prehistoric Technology. Translated by M. W. Thompson. Barnes and Noble Books, New York.Google Scholar
  88. Shafer, H. J. 1983. The Lithic Artifacts of the Pulltrouser Area: Settlement and Fields. In Pulltrouser Swamp: Ancient Maya Habitat, Agriculture, and Settlement in Northern Belize, edited by B. L. Turner II and P. D. Harrison, pp. 212–245. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  89. Shafer, H. J. 1985. A Technological Study of Two Maya Lithic Workshops at Colha, Belize. In Stone Tool Analysis: Essays in Honor of Don E. Crabtree, edited by M. G. Plew, J. C. Woods and M. G. Pavasic, pp. 277–315. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  90. Shafer, H. J. 1991. Late Preclassic Formal Stone Tool Production at Colha, Belize. In Maya Stone Tools: Selected Papers from the Second Maya Lithic Conference, edited by T. R. Hester and H. J. Shafer, pp. 31–44. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  91. Shafer, H. J., and T. R. Hester. 1983. Ancient Maya Chert Workshops in Northern Belize. American Antiquity 48: 519–543.Google Scholar
  92. Shafer, H. J., and T. R. Hester. 1986. Maya Stone-Tool Craft Specialization and Production at Colha, Belize: Reply to Mallory. American Antiquity 51: 158–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sheets, P. D. 1972. A Model of Mesoamerican Obsidian Technology Based on Preclassic Workshop Debris in El Salvador. Cerarnica de Cultura Maya 8: 17–33.Google Scholar
  94. Sheets, P. D. 1977. The Analysis of Chipped Stone Artifacts in Southern Mesoamerica. Latin American Research Review 12: 139–158.Google Scholar
  95. Sidrys, R. V. 1976. Classic Maya Obsidian Trade. American Antiquity 41: 449–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sidrys, R. V., and J. Kimberlin. 1979. Use of Mayan Obsidian Sources through Time: Trace Element Data from El Balsamo, Guatemala. Journal of Field Archaeology 6: 116–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sievert, A. K. 1992. Maya Ceremonial Specialization: Lithic Tools from the Sacred Cenote at Chichen Itza, Yucatan. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  98. Taylor, W. W. 1948. A Study of Archaeology. American Anthropological Association, Memoir 69.Google Scholar
  99. Thompson, M. 1991. Flaked Celt Production at Becan, Campeche, Mexico. In Maya Stone Tools: Selected Papers from the Second Maya Lithic Conference, edited by T. R. Hester and H. J. Shafer, pp. 143–154. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  100. Valdez, F., and D. R. Potter. 1991. Chert Debitage from the Harvard Copan Excavations: Descriptions and Comments. In Maya Stone Tools: Selected Papers from the Second Maya Lithic Conference, edited by T. R. Hester and H. J. Shafer, pp. 203–206. Prehistory Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  101. Webb, W. S., and D. L. DeJarnette. 1942. An Archaeological Survey of Pickwick Basin in the Adjacent Portion of the States of Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 129, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  102. Wilk, R. 1975. Superficial Examination of Structure 100, Colha. In Archaeology in Northern Belize: British Museum-Cambridge University Corozal Project, 1974–75 Interim Report, edited by N. Hammond, pp. 152-173. Centre of Latin American Studies, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  103. Wilk, R. 1978. Microscopic Analysis of Chipped Flint and Obsidian. In Excavations at Seibal: Artifacts, edited by G. R. Willey pp. 139-145. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 14, no. 1, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  104. Willey, G. R. 1972. The Artifacts of Altar de Sacrificios. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 64, no. 1, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  105. Willey, G. R. 1978. Excavations at Seibal: Artifacts. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 14, no. 1, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  106. Willey, G. R., W R. Bullard, Jr., J. B. Glass, and J. C. Gifford. 1965. Prehistoric Maya Settlements in the Belize Valley. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 54, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  107. Yerkes, R. W. 1983. Microwear, Microdrills, and Mississippian Craft Specialization. American Antiquity 48: 499–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yerkes, R. W. 1990. Using Microwear Analysis to Investigate Domestic Activities and Craft Specialization at the Murphy Site, a Small Hopewell Settlement in Licking County, Ohio. In The Interpretive Possibilities of Microwear Studies, edited by B. Graslund, H. Knutsson, K. Knutsson and J. Taffinder, pp. 167-176. Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis, AUN 14, Uppsala, Sweden.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay K. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and AnthropologyUniversity of MississippiMississippiUSA

Personalised recommendations