Measurement of Trace Elements in Bone by ICP-MS
Osteoporosis constitutes a growing problem first of all because of the increase in the elderly population (1). In addition, several studies have demonstrated significant increases in age-corrected incidence of osteoporotic fractures during the last decades which makes declining quality of bone an important factor (2). The classical osteoporotic fractures are located at the distal forearm, the spine and the hip, sites that are all dominated by trabecular bone (3). Women are primarily affected but a rising number of men suffer from osteoporotic fractures. Many factors such as sex-hormones, exercise, vitamin D and calcium intake are known to affect the bone turnover and the risk of developing osteoporosis. Specially interesting are marked unexplained differences in the prevalence of osteoporosis in different parts of the world (4) and even within the same geographical areas with lower incidence of osteoporosis in the rural districts compared to the cities (5). A number of trace elements have influence on bone. Some elements are toxic others beneficial and some essential for a normal bone metabolism. Intoxications with aluminum in patients with chronic renal diseases (6), treatment with fluoride in osteoporosis (7), and the Itai-Itai disease caused by cadmium in Japan (8) are important examples. Furthermore, many enzymes need trace elements as cofactors for optimal function. Important enzymes for bone such as alkaline phosphatase and lysyl oxidase are thus dependent on zinc and copper, respectively (9,10).
KeywordsInductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry Trabecular Bone Osteoporotic Fracture Distal Forearm Lysyl Oxidase
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