Mechanisms of Endothelial Injury and Repair
Microvascular injury is very commonly involved, in the lung as well as in other organs, to explain the pathogenesis of various disorders, the adult respiratory distress syndrome being a paradigm of such a complex situation where toxic and inflammatory elements interact. The role of cytokines has received prominent attention and their involvement in the expression of adhesion molecules has emphasized the importance of the intricate relationship between endothelial cells and circulating cells and of the potential amplification of inflammatory processes. Endothelial injury, which often initiates a whole set of reactions, can result from exposure to exogenous compounds, toxic (drugs for examples) and of microbial origin, and/or to endogenous products such as the reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and the already mentioned cytokines. The effects of oxygen radicals will be discussed more specifically because they represent a well studied model of endothelial injury. They are also associated with other important factors implicated in microvascular damage.
KeywordsHuman Endothelial Cell Endothelial Injury Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Reactive Oxygen Intermediate Endothelial Cell Activation
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