Preparation and Potential for Application of Cationic Polysaccharides in Cosmetic Formulations

  • William H. Daly
  • Melissa Manuszak Guerrini
  • Doris Culberson
  • Javier Macossay


Polymeric quaternary ammonium salts (polyquats) have a variety of uses in cosmetic formulations due to their solubility in both aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic media. Polyquats have been used as thickeners, emulsifiers, fixatives or film formers, and as additives in formulations to improve combing of hair, manageability, body, curl retention and substantivity of ingredients to keratin.1,2 The particular application of a polymer depends on the polymer’s ability to absorb at an interface, stabilize dispersions, emulsify, and confer the preferred rheology by means of a three dimensional network.2 Cationic ingredients are substantive to hair keratin due to the low isoelectric point of hair (pH = 3.67).3 However, the high affinity of some cationic polymers has limited their use due to soiling (build up) and resistance to removal by anionic surfactants.1


Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polymer Concentration Anionic Surfactant Cationic Polymer Cationic Charge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. R. Robbins. Chemical and Physical Behavior of Human Hair, Third ed.; Springer-Verlag: New York, (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Y. Lochhead, Water soluble polymers solution adsorption and interaction characteristics, Cosmetics and Toiletries, 107: 131–156(1992).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. Wilkerson, The chemistry of human epidermis. II. The isoelectric points of the stratum corneum, hair and nails as determined by electrophoresis, J. Biol. Chem. 112: 329–335 (1935).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Gross, E. Konrad and H. Mager, Investigations on chitosan as a natural film forming ingredient in hair cosmetic products under the consideration of ecological aspects, Parfuemerie und Kosmetik, 64: 67–71 (1983).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Lang, E. Konrad and H. Wendel. Chitin in Nature and Technology, R. A. A. Muzzarelli, C. Jeuniaus and G. W. Gooday, Eds.; Plenum Press: New York (1986).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Gross, E. Konrad and H. Mager, Hair setting preparation containing chitosan salts.; Ger. Offen. DE PS 2,627,419, 1972, pp 12.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Konrad, P. Gross and H. Mager, Aqueous hair conditioner and shampoo compositions containing water-soluble chitosan salt especially with an organic acid as a conditioner.; Eur. Pat. Appl. EP PS 2,506, 1978.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Lang, G. Maresch, H. Wendel, E. Konrad, H. Lenz and J. Titze, Cosmetic preparations for hair and skin containing N-(hydroxypropyl)chitosans.; Ger. Offen. DE 3,541,305, 1985, pp 12.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Lang, H. Wendel and E. Konrad, Cosmetic agent based on chitosan derivatives and preparation of these derivatives.; Ger. Offen. DE 3,223,423: Germany, 1982, pp 34.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Lang and T. Clausen, The use of chitosan in cosmetics In: Chitin and Chitosan, Sources, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Physical Properties and Applications, First ed.; G. Skjak-Braek, T. Anthonsen and P. Sandford, Eds., Eslevier Applied Science: New York (1989).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Lang, H. Wendel and E. Konrad, Chitosan derivatives in cosmetics Ger. Offen. DE 3,502,833, 1985, pp 34.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Lang, H. Wendel and E. Konrad, Chitosan derivatives in cosmetics.; Ger. Offen, DE 3,501,891, 1985, pp 34.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Lang, H. Wendel and E. Konrad, Cosmetic agent from quaternary chitosan derivatives and new quaternary chitosan derivatives.; Ger. Offen. DE 3,245,784: Germany, 1982, pp 40.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Maresch, J. Titze and G. Lang, Sulfopropyl derivatives ofchitin and chitosan and their application.; Ger. Offen. DE 3,432,227: Germany, 1983, pp 15.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Macossay and W. H. Daly, Preparation of water soluble chitosan derivatives by treatment with substituted oxiranes, National ACS Meeting (CELL), American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, (1994).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Macossay. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Derivatives; Louisiana State University: Baton Rouge, 1995.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    F. W. Stone and J. M. Rutherford, Quaternary nitrogen containing cellulose ethers; Union Carbide Corporation: United States, 1969.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. A. Faucher, E. D. Goddard and R. B. Hannan, Sorption and desorption of a cationic polymer by human hair: Effects of salt solutions, Textile Research Journal, 47: 616–620 (1977).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. D. Goddard and R. B. Hannan, Cationic polymer / anionic surfactant interactions, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 55: 73–79 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. D. Goddard, J. A. Faucher, R. J. Scott and M. E. Turney, Adsorption of polymer JR on keratinous surfaces — Part II, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 26: 539–550 (1975).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. Y. Lochhead and W. R. Fron, Encyclopedia of polymers and thickeners for cosmetics, Cosmetics and Toiletries, 108: 95–135 (1993).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. R. Robbins, C. Reich and A. Patel, Adsorption to keratinous surfaces: A continuum between a charge-driven and a hydrophobically driven process, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 45:85–94(1994).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. Nguyen, D. Cannell, R. Matthews and H. Oei, Assessment of the substantivity of cationic quaternary compounds to hair by potentiometric titration using the surfactant electrode, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 43: 259–273 (1992).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Ayer and J. Thompson, Scanning electron microscopy and other new approaches to hair spray evaluation, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 23: 617–636 (1972).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    W. Eckardt, Physikalische Messungen an Filmbildnern für Haarsprays, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 21: 281–287 (1970).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Micchelli and F. T. Koehler, Polymer properties influencing curl retention at high humidity, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 19: 863–880 (1968).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    R. R. Wickert, J. Sramek and C. Trobaugh, Measurement of the adhesive strength of hair-hairspray junctions, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 43: 169–178 (1992).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. A. Faucher and E. D. Goddard, Influence of surfactants on the sorption of a cationic polymer by keratinous substrates, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 55: 313–319 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. B. Hannan, E. D. Goddard and J. A. Faucher, Desorption of a cationic polymer from human hair: Surfactant and salt effects, Textile Research Journal, 48: 57–58 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. M. Hutter, M. T. Clarke, E. K. Just, J. L. Lichtin and A. Sakr, The influence of nonionic cellulosic polymers on the uptake of polyquaternium 10 by bleached hair, Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 43: 229–235 (1992).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. Culberson and W. H. Daly, Approaches to the synthesis of aminoalkylcarbamoyl cellulosics, Polymer Preprints, 34: 564–565 (1993).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Culberson and W. H. Daly, Synthesis and characterization of aminoalkylcarbamoyl cellulosics, Polymeric Materials, Science and Engineering, 71: 498 (1994).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    D. A. Culberson. Synthesis and Characterization of Aminoalkylcarbamoyl Cellulosics; Louisiana State University: Baton Rouge, 1995, pp 161.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. A. Manuszak Guerrini, D. A. Culberson and W. H. Daly, patent pending.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    E. D. Goddard and R. B. Hannan, Polymer / surfactant interactions, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 54: 561–566 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. Xia, H. Zhang, D. R. Rigsbee, P. L. Dubin and T. Shaikh, Structural elucidation of soluble polyelectrolyte — micelle complexes: Intra-vs interpolymer association, Macromolecules, 26: 2759–2766 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Y. Li and P. L. Dubin, Polymer — surfactant complexes In: Structure and Flow in Surfactant Solutions, First ed.; C. A. Herb and R. K. Prud’homme, Eds.; American Chemical Society: Washington DC, 1994; Vol. 578, pp 320–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. L. Dubin and D. Davis, Stoichiometry and coacervation of complexes formed between polyelectrolytes and mixed micelles, Colloids and Surfaces, 13: 113–124 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    P. L. Dubin, D. R. Rigsbee, L. M. Gan and M. A. Fallon, Equilibrium binding of mixed micelles to oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, Macromolecules, 21: 2555–2559 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    K. Kalyanasundaram and J. K. Thomas, Environmental effects on vibronic band intensities in pyrene monomer fluorescence and their application in studies of micellar systems, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 99: 2039–2044 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    S. Nilsson, Interactions between water-soluble cellulose derivatives and surfactants. 1. The HPMC/SDS/Water system, Macromolecules, 28: 7837–7844 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. K. Thomas, Radiation-induced reactions in organized assemblies, Chemical Reviews, 80: 283–299 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    N. J. Turro, B. H. Baretz and P. L. Kuo, Photoluminescence probes for the investigation of interactions between sodium dodecyl sulfate and water-soluble polymers, Macromolecules, 17: 1321–1324 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    R. Zana, P. Lianos and J. Lang, Fluorescence probe studies of the interactions between poly(oxyethylene) and surfactant micelles and microemulsion droplets in aqueous solutions, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 89: 41–44 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A. Hammarström and L. O. Sundelöf, NMR study of polymer surfactant interaction in the system HPMC/SDS/water, Colloid Polym. Sci., 271: 1129–1133 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    S. Nilsson, C. Holmberg and L. O. Sundelof, Aggregation numbers of SDS micelles formed on EHEC. A steady state fluorescence quenching study, Colloid Polym. Sci., 273: 83–95 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Daly
    • 1
  • Melissa Manuszak Guerrini
    • 1
  • Doris Culberson
    • 1
  • Javier Macossay
    • 1
  1. 1.Macromolecular Studies Group, Department of ChemistryLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations