Advertisement

Resilience in Adulthood and Later Life

Defining Features and Dynamic Processes
  • Carol D. Ryff
  • Gayle Dienberg Love
  • Marilyn J. Essex
  • Burton Singer
Part of the The Springer Series in Adult Development and Aging book series (SSAD)

Abstract

The study of mental health in old age, as throughout the life course, has addressed primarily the nature of mental illness, disorders, and difficulties. Health in this framework is essentially the “absence of illness”—to the extent that one does not suffer from various forms of mental problems, one is deemed mentally healthy. Such a negative approach, which prevails in the assessment of physical health as well, fails to address individuals’ capacities to thrive and flourish, that is, go beyond the absence of illness, or neutrality, into the presence of Wellness (Ryff, 1995; Ryff & Singer, 1996; 1998). In this chapter, we examine the relevance of positive psychological well-being for understanding mental health in adulthood and later life. Such a focus on the positive underscores, we believe, the unique strengths and vulnerabilities of the current elderly population.

Keywords

Protective Factor Successful Aging Allostatic Load Positive Mental Health Life Transition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R. L., & Syme, S. L. (1994). Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist, 49, 15–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, N. E., & Matthews, K. (1994). Health psychology: Why do some people get sick and some stay well?. Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 229–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldwin, C. M. (1991). Does age affect the stress and coping process? Implications of age differences in perceived control. Journal of Gerontology, 46, 174–180.Google Scholar
  4. Allport, G. W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  5. Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (Eds.). (1990). Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Berkman, L. F., Seeman, T. E., Albert, M. et al. (1993). High, usual and impaired functioning in community-dwelling older men and women: Findings from the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Successful Aging. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 46, 1129–1140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Birren, J. E., & Renner, V. J. (1980). Concepts and issues of mental health and aging. In J. E. Birren & R. B. Sloane (Eds.), Handbook of mental health and aging (pp. 3–33). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  8. Block, J. H. (1971). Lives through time. Berkeley, CA: Bancroft Books.Google Scholar
  9. Block, J. H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W. A. Collins (Ed.), Development of cognition, affect, and social relations: The Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology, (Vol. 13, pp. 39–101). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Bolger, N., & Schilling, E. A. (1991). Personality and the problems of everyday life: The role of neuroticism in exposure and reactivity to daily Stressors. Journal of Personality, 59, 355–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bond, L. A., Cutler, S. J., & Grams, A. (Eds.). (1995). Promoting successful and productive aging. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, P. L. (1990, November 29). For some, “retired” is an inaccurate label. New York Times, pp. B1-B2.Google Scholar
  13. Buhler, C., & Massarik, F. (Eds.). (1968). The course of human life. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, S. (1988). Psychosocial models of social support in the etiology of physical disease. Health Psychology, 7, 269–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, S. (1996). Psychological stress, immunity, and upper respiratory infections. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 5, 86–89.Google Scholar
  17. Cohen, S., & Herbert, T. B. (1996). Health psychology: Psychological factors and physical disease from the perspective of human psychoneuroimmunology. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 113–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 2, 310–357.Google Scholar
  19. Cole, J. R., & Singer, B. (1991). A theory of limited differences: Explaining the productivity puzzle in science. In H. Zuckerman, J. R. Cole, & J. T. Bruer (Eds.), The outer circle: Women in the scientific community (pp. 277–340). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  20. Danish, S. J. (1997). Going for the Goal: A life skills program for adolescents. In G. Albeee & T. Gullotta (Eds.), Prevention works (pp. 291–312). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Danish, S. J., Mash, J. M., Howard, C. W., Curl, S. J., Meyer, A. L., Owens, S., & Kendall, K. (1992). Going for the Goal Leader Manual, Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.Google Scholar
  22. Davidson, R. J. (1992a). Anterior cerebral asymmetry and the nature of emotion. Brain and Cognition, 20, 125–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Davidson, R. J. (1992b). Emotion and affective style: Hemispheric substrates. Psychological Science, 3, 39–43.Google Scholar
  24. Davidson, R. J. (1993). Cerebral asymmetry and emotion: Conceptual and methodological conundrums. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 115–138.Google Scholar
  25. Davidson, R. J. (1995). Cerebral asymmetry, emotion and affective style. In R. J. Davidson & K. Hugdahl (Eds.), Brain asymmetry (pp. 000–000). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  26. Depue, R. A., & Iacono, W. G. (1989). Neurobehavioral aspects of affective disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 40, 457–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Depue, R. A., Luciana, M., Arbisi, P., Collins, P., & Leon, A. (1994). Dopamine and the structure of personality: Relation of agonist-induced dopamine activity and positive emotionality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 485–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dienstbier, R. A. (1989). Arousal and physiological toughness: Implications for mental and physical health. Psychological Review, 96, 84–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dohrenwend, B. P., Levav, I., & Shrout, P. E. (1992) Socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders: The causation-selection issue. Science, 255, 946–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Erikson, E. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. Psychological Issues, 1, 18–164.Google Scholar
  31. Frankl, V. E. (1992). Man’s search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. (Original published 1959)Google Scholar
  32. Garmezy, N. (1991). Resiliency and vulnerability of adverse developmental outcomes associated with poverty. American Behavioral Scientist, 34, 416–430.Google Scholar
  33. Garmezy, N. (1993). Vulnerability and resistance. In D. C. Funder, R. D. Parke, C. Tomlinson-Keasey, & K. Widaman (Eds.), Studying lives through time: Personality and development (pp. 377–398). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  34. Garmezy, N., Masten, A. S., & Tellegen, A. (1984). The study of stress and competence in children: A building block for development. Child Development, 55, 97–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Harris, T., Brown, G. W., & Bifulco, A. (1990). Loss of parent in childhood and adult psychiatric disorder: A tentative overall model. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 311–328.Google Scholar
  36. Heady, B., & Wearing, A. (1989). Personality life events, and subjective well-being: Toward a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 731–739.Google Scholar
  37. Heidrich, S. M., & Ryff, C. D. (1993a). The role of social comparison processes in the psychological adaptation of elderly adults. Journal of Gerontology, 48, P127–P136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Heidrich, S. M., & Ryff, C. D. (1993a). Physical and mental health in later life: The self-system as mediator. Psychology and Aging, 8, 327–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Heidrich, S. M., & Ryff, C. D. (1996). The self in later years of life: Changing perspectives on psychological well-being. In L. Sperry & H. Prosen (Eds.), Aging in the twenty-first century: A developmental perspective (pp. 73–102). New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  40. Higgins, G. O. (1994). Resilient adults: Overcoming a cruel past. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  41. Hoffmann, P. (1997). The endorphin hypothesis: In W. P. Morgan (Ed.), Physical activity and mental health (pp. 163–177). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  42. Holmes, K. F. (1994). Human ecology and behavior and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91, 2448–2455.Google Scholar
  43. House, J. S., Landis, K. R., & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science, 241, 540–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Insel, T. R. (1992). Oxytocin: A neuropeptide for affiliation—evidence from behavioral, receptor autoradiographic, and comparative studies. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 17, 3–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Jahoda, M. (1958). Current concepts of positive mental health. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  46. Jung, C. G. (1933). Modern man in search of a soul. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.Google Scholar
  47. Kang, D. H., Davidson, R. J., Coe, C. I. et al. (1991). Frontal brain asymmetry and immune function. Behavioral Neuroscience, 105, 860–869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kessler, R. C., & Cleary, P. (1980). Social class and psychological distress. American Sociological Review, 45, 463–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kessler, R. C., & Magee, W. J. (1993). Childhood adversities and adult depression: Basic patterns of association in a U.S. national survey. Psychological Medicine, 23, 679–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Malarkey, W. B., Cacioppo, J. T., & Glaser, R. (1994). Stressful personal relationships: Immune and endocrine function. In R. Glaser & J. K Kiecolt-Glaser (Eds.), Handbook of human stress and immunity (pp. 321–340). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  51. Kling, K. C., Ryff, C. D., & Essex, M. J. (1997). Adaptive changes in the self-concept during a life transition. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 989–998.Google Scholar
  52. Kling, K. C., Seltzer, M. M., & Ryff, C. D. (1997). Distinctive late life challenges: Implications for coping and well-being. Psychology and Aging, 12, 288–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Klohnen, E. C. (1996). Conceptual analysis and measurement of the construct of ego-resiliency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1067–1079.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  55. Leviathan, U. (1989). Successful aging: The kibbutz experience. Journal of Aging and Judaism, 42, 71–92.Google Scholar
  56. Maier, S. F., Watkins, L. R., & Fleshner, M. (1994). Psychoneuroimmunology: The interface between behavior, brain, and immunity. American Psychologist, 49, 1004–1017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Marmot, M., Ryff, C. D., Bumpass, L. L., Shipley, M., & Marks, N. F. (1997). Social inequalities in health: Converging evidence and next questions. Social Science and Medicine, 44, 901–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Maslow, A. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  59. Masten, A. S. (1989). Resilience in development: Implications of the study of successful adaptation for developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti (Ed.), The emergence of a discipline: Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology (Vol. 1, pp. 261–294). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  60. Masten, A. S., & Garmezy, N. (1985). Risk, vulnerability, and protective factors in developmental psychopathology. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 1–52). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  61. Mathabane, M. (1986). Kaffir boy. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  62. McEwen, B. S., & Stellar, E. (1993). Stress and the individual. Archives of Internal Medicine, 153, 2093–2101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. McLeod, J. D., & Kessler, R. C. (1990). Socioeconomic status differences in vulnerability to undesirable life events. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31, 162–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. MeInechuk, T. (1988). Emotions, brain, immunity, and health: A review. In M. Clynes & J. Panksepp (Eds.), Emotions and psychopathology (pp. 181–247). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  65. Menaghan, E. D. (1983). Individual coping efforts: Moderators of the relationship between life stress and mental health outcomes. In H. B. Kaplan (Ed.), Psychosocial stress: Trends in theory and research (pp. 157–191). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  66. Merton, R. K. (1968). The Matthew Effect in science. Science, 159, 59–63.Google Scholar
  67. Morgan, W. P. (Ed.). (1997). Physical activity and mental health (Series in Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  68. Neugarten, B. L. (1973). Personality change in late life: A developmental perspective. In C. Eisdorfer & M. P. Lawton (Eds.), The psychology of adult development and aging. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  69. Ormel, J., Stewart, R., & Sanderman, R. (1989). Personality as modifier of the life change-distress relationship. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 24, 187–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Panksepp, J. (1981). Brain opiods—a neurochemical substrate for narcotic and social dependence. In S. Cooper (Ed.), Theory in psychopharmacology (pp. 149–175). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  71. Panksepp, J. (1992). Oxytocin effects on emotional processes: Separation distress, social bonding, and relationships to psychiatric disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 652, 243–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Panksepp, J. (1993). Neurochemical control of moods and emotions: Amino acids to neuropeptides. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 87–106). New York: Guildford.Google Scholar
  73. Pearlin, L. I. (1991). The study of coping: An overview of problems and directions. In J. Eckenrode (Ed.), The social context of coping (pp. 261–276). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  74. Pearlin, L. I., & Schooler, C. (1978). The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 19, 2–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pederson, C. A., Caldwell, J. D., & Brooks, P. J. (1990). Neuropeptide control of parental and reproductive behavior. In D. Ganten & D. Pfaff (Eds.), Current topics in neuroendocrinology: Vol. 10. Behavioral aspects of neuroendocrinology (pp. 81–113). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  76. Riley, M. W., Kahn, R. L., & Foner, A. (1994). Age and structural lag. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  77. Robins, R. W, John, O. P., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled boys: Three replicable personality types. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 157–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  79. Ross, C. E., & Wu, C. L. (1996). Education, age, and the cumulative advantage in health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37, 104–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1987). Human aging: Usual and successful. Science, 237, 143–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Russell, B. (1958). The conquest of happiness. New York: Liveright. (Original published 1930)Google Scholar
  82. Rutter, M. (1985). Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 598–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 22, 323–356.Google Scholar
  84. Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In J. Rolf, A. S. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. H. Neuchterlein, & S. Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 181–214). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Rutter, M., Maughan, N., Mortimore, P., & Ouston, J. (1979). Fifteen thousand hours: Secondary schools and their effects on children. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.Google Scholar
  87. Ryff, C. D. (1991). Possible selves in adulthood and old age: A tale of shifting horizons. Psychology and Aging, 6, 386–295.Google Scholar
  88. Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological well-being in adult life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 99–104.Google Scholar
  89. Ryff, C. D. (1996). Psychological well-being. In J. E. Birren (Ed.), Encyclopedia of gerontology: Age, aging, and the aged (pp. 365–369). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  90. Ryff, C. D., & Essex, M. J. (1992). The interpretation of life experience and well-being: The sample case of relocation. Psychology and Aging, 7, 507–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L.M (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Ryff, C. D., & Seltzer, M. M. (Eds.) (1900). The parental experience in midlife. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  93. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (1996). Psychological well-being: Meaning, measurement, and implications for psychotherapy research. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 65, 14–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (1998). The contours of positive human health. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 1–28.Google Scholar
  95. Schulz, R., & Heckhausen, J. (1996). A life span model of successful aging. American Psychologist, 51, 702–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Seeman, T. E. (1996). Social ties and health: The benefits of social integration. Annals of Epidemiology, 6, 442–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Seeman, T., Charpentier, P., Berkman, L., Tinetti, M., Guralnik, J., Albert, M., Blazer, D., & Rowe, J. (1994). Predicting changes in physical performance in a high-functioning elderly cohort: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. Journal of Gerontology, 49, M97–M108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Seeman, T. E., Singer, B. H., Rowe, J. W., Horwitz, R. I., & McEwen, B. S. (1997). The price of adaptation: Allostatic load and its health consequences: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. Archives of Internal Medicine, 157, 2259–2268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Singer, B. H., & Ryff, C. D. (1997). Racial and ethnic inequalities in health: Environmental, psychosocial, and physiological pathways. In B. Devlin, S. E. Feinberg, D. Resnick, & K. Roeder, (Eds.), Intelligence, genes, and success. Scientists respond to the Bell Curve (pp. 89–122). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  100. Singer, B. H., Ryff, C. D., & Magee, N. J. (in press). Linking life histories and mental health: A person-centered strategy. In A. Raferty (Ed.), Sociological methodology. Google Scholar
  101. Smider, N. A., Essex, M. J., & Ryff, C. D. (1996). Adaptation to community relocation: The interactive influence of psychological researches and contextual factors. Psychology and Aging, 11, 362–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Solomon, G. F., Fiatarone, M. A., Benton, D., Morley, J. E., Bloom, E., & Makinodan, T. (1987). Psychoimmunologic and endorphin function in the aged. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 54, 143–158.Google Scholar
  103. Spiegel, D., Kraemer, H. C., Bloom, T. R., & Gottheil, E. (1989). Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Lancet, ii, 888–891.Google Scholar
  104. Staudinger, U. M., Marsiske, M., & Baltes, P. B. (1995). Resilience and reserve capacity in later adulthood: Potentials and limits of development across the life span. In D. Cicchitti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 2. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 801–847). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  105. Sterling, P., & Eyer, J. (1988). Allostasis: A new paradigm to explain arousal pathology. In J. Fisher & J. Reason (Eds.), Handbook of life stress, cognition, and health (pp. 629–649). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  106. Stone, A. A., Bovbjerg, D. H., Neale, J. M., Napoli, A., Valdimarsdottir, H. et al. (1992). Development of common cold symptoms following experimental rhinovirus infection is related to prior stressful life events. Behavioral Medicine, 8, 115–120.Google Scholar
  107. Thoits, P. A. (1994). Stressors and problem-solving: The individual as psychological activist. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 143–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Thoits, P. A. (1995). Stress, coping, and social support processes: Where are we? What next?. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, (Extra Issue), 53-79.Google Scholar
  109. Tomarken, A. J., Davidson, R. J., Wheeler, R. I., & Doss, R. C. (1992). Individual differences in anterior brain asymmetry and fundamental dimensions of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 676–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Tomarken, A. J., & Davidson, R. J. (1994). Frontal brain activation in repressore and non-repressors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 339–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Turner, R. J., & Lloyd, D. A. (1995). Lifetime traumas and mental health: The significance of cumulative adversity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36, 360–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Uchino, B. N., Cacioppo, J. T., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1996). The relationship between social support and physiological processes: A review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 488–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Uvnäs-Moberg, K. (1997). Physiological and endocrine effects of social contact. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 287, 146–163.Google Scholar
  114. Werner, E. E. (1993). Risk, resilience, and recovery: Perspectives from the Kauai Longitudinal Study. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 503–515.Google Scholar
  115. Werner, E. E. (1995). Resilience in development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 81–85.Google Scholar
  116. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1977). Kauai’s children come of age. Honolulu University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  117. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Wethington, E., & Kessler, R. C. (1986). Perceived support, received support, and adjustment to stressful life events. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 27, 78–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Wheaton, B. (1990). Life transitions, role histories and mental health. American Sociological Review, 55, 209–223.Google Scholar
  120. Wilde, O. (1962). The picture of Dorian Gray. New York: Signet Classics. (Original published 1891)Google Scholar
  121. Wittling, W, & Pfluger, M. (1992). Neuroendocrine hemisphere asymmetries: Salivary cortisol secretion during lateralized viewing of emotion-related and neutral films. In C. Kirschbaum, G. F. Read, & D. H. Hellhammer (Eds.), Assessment of hormones and drugs in saliva in biobehavioral research (pp. 129–146). Toronto: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  122. Zimmerman, M. A., & Amnkumar, R. (1994). Resiliency research: Implications for schools and policy. Social Policy Report (Society for Research in Child Development), 8, 1–17.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol D. Ryff
    • 1
  • Gayle Dienberg Love
    • 1
  • Marilyn J. Essex
    • 1
  • Burton Singer
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute on AgingUniversity of Wisconsin—MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Office of Population ResearchPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations