Advertisement

Monitoring and Measuring Drug Effects. I. Physical Effects

  • Alan J. Zametkin
  • Emily M. Yamada

Abstract

The decision to use psychoactive medications in children and adolescents is not taken lightly by parents or clinicians. Many factors are weighed in this decision, including the diagnosis and severity of symptoms, age, preferences of the child and parents, medical and family history, risk of serious adverse effects, and success and failure of previous treatment. Medications are often utilized only after periods of behavioral therapy or psychotherapeutic approaches have failed to ameliorate adequately the presenting symptoms.

Keywords

Tardive Dyskinesia Tourette Syndrome Psychoactive Drug Human Immune Deficiency Virus Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abramowicz M: Sudden death in children treated with a tricyclic antidepressant. Med Lett Drugs Ther 32:53, 1990.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Riddle MA, Nelson JC, Kleinman CS, et al: Sudden death in children receiving Norpramin: A review of three reported cases and commentary. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 30:104–108, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Riddle MA, Geller B, Ryan, ND: Another sudden death in a child treated with desipramine. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32:792–797, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Biederman J: Sudden death in children treated with a tricyclic antidepressant. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 30:495–498, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Biederman J, Thisted RA, Greenhill LL, Ryan ND: Estimation of the association between desipramine and the risk for sudden death in 5- to 14-year-old children. J Clin Psychiatry 56(3):87–93, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hauser P, Zametkin A, et al: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in people with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone. N Engl J Med 328:997–1001, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cantwell DP, Baker L: Psychiatric disorder in children with speech and language retardation: A critical review. Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:583–591, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gittelman-Klein R, Spitzer RL, Cantwell D: Diagnostic classifications and psychopharmacological indications, in Werry JS (ed): Pediatric Psychopharmacology: The Use of Behavior Modifying Drugs in Children. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1978, pp 136–167.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Campbell M, Palij, M: Measurement of side effects including tardive dyskinesia, in special issue of Psychopharmacology Bulletin: Rating Scales and Assessment Instruments for Use in Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research. Published by the National Institute of Mental Health. Psychopharmacol Bull 21(4):1063–1066, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Special issue of Psychopharmacology Bulletin: Rating Scales and Assessment Instruments for Use in Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research. Published by the National Institute of Mental Health. Psychopharmacol Bull 21(4), 1985.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guy W: Dosage Record and Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale, in: ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology (Revised). US Department of Health, Education and Human Welfare publication (ADM) 76–338, 1976, pp 223–244.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guy W: Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale—Write-In, in: ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology (Revised). US Department of Health, Education and Human Welfare publication (ADM) 76–338, 1976, pp 341–345.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guy W: Subjects Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale, in: ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology (Revised). US Department of Health, Education and Human Welfare publication (ADM) 76–338, 1976, pp 347–350.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guy W: Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, in: ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology (Revised). US Department of Health, Education and Human Welfare publication (ADM) 76–338, 1976, pp 534–537.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meiselas KD, Spencer EK, Oberfield R, Peselow ED, Angrist B, Campbell M: Differentiation of stereotypies from neuroleptic-related dyskinesias in autistic children. J Clin Psychopharmacol 9:207–209, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Campbell M, Green WH, Deutsch SI: Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. Beverly Hills, Calif, Sage Publications, 1985, pp 11–42.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barkley RA:, 1981.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guy W: Physical and Neurological Examination for Soft Signs, in: ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology (Revised). US Department of Health, Education and Human Welfare publication (ADM) 76–338, 1976, pp 383–406.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Denckla MB: Revised neurological examination for subtle signs, in special issue of, Psychopharmacology Bulletin: Rating Scales and Assessment Instruments for Use in Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research. Published by the National Institute of Mental Health, Psychopharmacol Bull 21(4):773–789, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sleator EK: Measurement of compliance, in special issue of Psychopharmacology Bulletin: Rating Scales and Assessment Instruments for Use in Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research. Published by the National Institute of Mental Health, Psychopharmacol Bull 21(4): 1089–1093, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Werry JS: Resolved: Cardiac arrhythmias make desipramine an unacceptable choice in children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:1239–1241, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Popper C, Elliot, GR: Postmortem pharmacokinetics of tricyclic antidepressants: Are some deaths during treatment misattributed to overdose? J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacology 3:10–12, 1993.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maloney MJ, Schwam JS: Clonidine and sudden death [letter]. Pediatrics, 96:1176–1177, 1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wilens TE, Biederman J, Baldessarini, RJ, et al: Cardiovascular effects of therapeutic doses of tricyclic antidepressants in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 35(11): 1491–1501, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Johnston HF, Fruehling, JJ: Experts do not agree on monitoring EKGs. Just the Fax, 1(1):1–3, 1994.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Park, M: Pediatric Cardiology for Practitioners. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers Inc., 1988.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wilens T, Biederman J, Spencer T: A retrospective study of serum levels and electrocardiographic effects of nortriptyline in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32:270–277, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ciraulo DA, Shader RL: Fluoxetine drug-drug interactions: I. Antidepressans and antipsychotics. J Clin Psychopharmacol 10:48–50, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ciraulo DA, Shader RL: Fluoxetine drug-drug interactions: II. J Clin Psychopharmacol 10:213–217, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Khan AU: Biochemical profile of depressed adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 6:873–878, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Doherty M, Madansky D, Kraft J, et al: Cortisol dynamics and test performance of the dexamethasone suppression test in 97 psychiatrically hospitalized children aged 3–16 years. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 25:400–408, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Klee S, Garfinkel B: Identification of depression in children and adolescents: The role of the dexamethasone suppression test. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 23:410–415, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Retoff S, Weiss S: The syndromes of resistance to thyroid hormone. Endocr Rev 34:348–399, 1993.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kinsbourne M: Disorders of mental development, in Menkes JH (ed): Textbook of Child Neurology, ed 3. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1985, pp 764–801.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Raj A, Sheehan D: Medical evaluation of panic attacks. J Clin Psychiatry 48:309–313, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zametkin A, Rapoport J: Neurobiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: Where have we come in 50 years? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 26:676–686, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bowden CL, Deutsch CK, Swanson JM: Plasma dope mine beta hydroxylase and platelet monoamine oxidase in attention deficit disorder and conduct disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 27:171–174, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kruesi MJP: Cruelty to animals and CSF 5-HIAA. Psychiatry Res 28:115–116, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kruesi MJP, Linnoila M, Rapoport JL, et al: Carbohydrate craving, conduct disorder and low CSF 5-HIAA. Psychiatry Res 16:83–86, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kruesi MJP, Rapoport JL, Hamburger S, et al: CSF monoamine metabolites, aggression and impulsivity in disruptive behavior disorders of children and adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 47:419–426, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Diederich N, Ackerman R, Jurgens R, et al: Early involvement of the nervous system by human immune deficiency virus (HIV): A study of 79 patients. Eur Neurol 28:93–103, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Leckman JF, Weissman MM, Pauls DL: Family-genetic studies and identification of valid diagnostic categories in adult and child psychiatry, Br J Psychiatry 151:39–44, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Walzer S, et al: A method for the longitudinal study of behavioral development in infants and children: The early development of XXY children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 19:213–229, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ratcliffe SG, Field MAS: Emotional disorder of XYY children: Four case reports. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 23:401–406, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nielsen J, Pelsen B, Sorenson K: Follow-up of 30 Klinefelter males treated with testosterone. Clin Genet 33:262–269, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dening T, Berrios G: Wilson’s disease: Psychiatric symptoms in 195 cases. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46:1126–1134, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Reiss A: Fragile X syndrome, in Obrien G, Yule, W (eds): Clinics in Developmental Medicine, vol. 138. Keith Press, London, 1995, pp 115–120.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hagerman R, Silverman A (eds): Fragile X Syndrome: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Research. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Turk, J: The fragile X syndrome: On the way to a behavioral phenotype. Br J Psychiatry 160:24–35, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Courchesne E, Yeung-Courchesne R, Press G, et al: Hypoplasia of cerebellar vermal lobules VI and VII in autism. N Engl J Med 318:1349–1354, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chugani H: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gwirtsman HE, Kaye WH, George DT, et al: Hyperamylasemia and its relationship to binge-purge episodes: Development of a clinically relevant laboratory test. J Clin Psychiatry 50(6): 196–204, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schoonover SC: Introduction: The practice of pharmacotherapy, in Bassuk EL, Schoonover SC, Gelenberg AJ (ed): The Practitioners Guide to Psychoactive Drugs, ed 2. New York, Plenum Press, 1983, pp 10–11.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Garvey CA, Gross D, Freeman L: Assessing psychotropic medication side effects among children. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 4(4):127–131, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan J. Zametkin
    • 1
  • Emily M. Yamada
    • 2
  1. 1.Office of the Clinical DirectorNational Institute of Mental HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations