Advertisement

Nootropics And Foods

  • C. Keith Conners
  • Elizabeth P. Sparrow

Abstract

Food, diet, vitamins, trace elements, minerals, and additives have been part of folk treatments for mental disorders dating back to itinerant peddlers of snake oil. Foods are often touted by those outside the traditional medical mainstream as substitutes for established treatments. Parents often besiege the practitioner with unproved remedies because they may sound more benign and “natural” than drugs or behavior modification. Unproved dietary remedies are frequently promoted by alternative practitioners seeking a competitive advantage in the marketplace of mental health services. These practitioners often target psychopharmacology as “unnatural” and dangerous compared to the beneficent natural use of foods and diet, thus playing upon parental anxieties and allegiances to holistic medicine.

Keywords

Hyperactive Child Ventral Globus Pallidus Nootropic Drug Minimal Brain Dysfunction Brain Tryptophan 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Conners CK: Feeding the Brain: How Foods Affect Children. New York, Plenum, 1990.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Millichap JG: Nutrition, Diet, and Your Child’s Behavior. Springfield, Ill: CC Thomas, 1986.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kanarek RB, Marks-Kaufman R: Nutrition and Behavior. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Conners CK: Food Additives and Hyperactive Children. New York, Plenum, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Conners CK: Sugars and hyperactivity, in Kretchmer N, Hollenbeck CB (eds): Sugars and Sweeteners. Boca Raton, Fla, CRC Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gouliaev AH, Senning A: Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 19: 180–222, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wackermann J, Lehmann D, Dvorak I, Michel CM: Global dimensional complexity of multi-channel EEG indicates change of human brain functional state after a single dose of a nootropic drug. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 86:193–198, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Giurgea C, Salama M: Nootropic drugs. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol 1:235–247, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wurtman RJ, Magil SG, Reinstein DK: Piracetam diminishes hippocampal acetylcholine levels in rats. Life Sei 28:1091–1093, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nyback H, Wiesel FA, Skett P: Effects of piracetam on brain monoamine metabolism and serum prolactin levels in the rat. Psychopharmacology 61:235–238, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Poschel BP, Marriott GG, Gluckman, MI: Pharmacology underlying the cognition-activating properties of Pramiracetam (CL-879). Psychopharmacol Bull 19:720–721, 1983.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Luthman J, Lindqvist E, Kojima H, Shiotani T, Tanaka M, Tachizawa H, Olson L: Effects of nefiracetam (DM-9384), a pyrrolidone derivative, on brain monoamine systems. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 328:125–144, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mondadori C: In search of the mechanism of action of the nootropics: New insights and potential clinical implications. Life Sei 55:2171–2178, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mondadori C: The pharmacology of the nootropics; new insights and new questions. Behav Brain Res 59: 1–9, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saletu B, Grunberger J, Anderer, R: On brain protection of co-dergocrine mesylate (Hydergine) against hypoxic hypoxidosis of different severity: Double-blind placebo-controlled quantitative EEG and psychometric studies. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 28:510–524, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Turo va NF, Ermolina LA, Baryshnikov VA, Kopaladze RA, Aziavchik AV: [Effect of nootropic agents on serum biochemical indices in intellectually deficient children.] Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatrii Imeni S S Korsa-kova 83:1558–1563, 1983.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dimond S, Brouwers EYM: Increase in the power of human memory in normal man through the use of drugs. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 49:307–309, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wilsher C: A brief review of studies of piracetam in dyslexia. J Psychopharmacol 1:95–100, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Conners CK, Blouin AG, Winglee M, et al: Piracetam and event-related potentials in dyslexic males. Int J Psychophysiology 4:19–27, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Conners CK, Reader M, Reiss A, et al: The effects of piracetam upon visual event-related potentials in dyslexic children. Psychophysiology 24:513–521, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dilanni M, Wilsher CR, Blank MS, Conners CK, et al: The effects of piracetam in children with dyslexia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 5:272–278, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Somnier FE, Ostergaard MS, Boysen G, Brunn P, Mikkelsen BO: Aniracetam tested in chronic psychosyndrome after long-term exposure to organic solvents. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study with neuropsychological tests. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) (QGI) 101:43–46, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aman MG, Rojahn J: Pharmacological intervention, in Singh NN, Beale IL (eds): Learning Disabilities: Nature, Theory, and Treatment. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1992, pp. 478–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Galler JR (ed): Nutrition and Behavior. New York, Plenum, 1984.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ (eds): Nutrition and the Brain, vols 1–4. New York, Raven Press, 1977–79.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wolraich ML, Wilson DB, White, JW: The effect of sugar on behavior or cognition in children. A metaanalysis. JAMA 274:1617–1621, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    National Academy of Sciences: Sweeteners: Issues and Uncertainties. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1975.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bennett FC, Sherman R: Management of childhood “hyperactivity” by primary care physicians. J Dev Behav Pediatr 4:88–93, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Prinz RJ, Roberts WA, Hantman E: Dietary correlates of hyperactive behavior in children. J Consult Clin Psychol 48:760–769, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wolraich ML, Milich R, Stumbo P, Schultz F: Effects of sucrose ingestion on behavior of hyperactive boys. J Pediatr 106:675–682, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Prinz RJ, Riddle DB: Associations between nutrition and behavior in five-year-old children. Nutr Rev 44 (Suppl.):151–158, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lester ML, Thatcher RW, Monroe-Lord L: Refined carbohydrate intake, hair cadmium levels, and cognitive functioning in children. Nutr Behav 1:3–13, 1982.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    White JW, Wolraich M: Effect of sugar on behavior and mental performance. Am J Clin Nutr 62:242S-247S, 1995.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hoover DW, Milich R: Effects of sugar ingestion expectancies on mother-child interactions. J. Abnorm Child Psychol 22:501–515, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Render J, Lifshitz F: The effects of fluctuations of blood glucose levels on the psychological performance of juvenile diabetics. Diabetes 25(Abstract):334, 1976.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Holmes CS, Hayford JT, Gonzalez JL, Weydert JA: A survey of cognitive functioning at different glucose levels in diabetic persons. Diabetes Care 6:180–185, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lapp JE: Effects of glycémie alterations and noun imagery on the learning of paired associates. J Learn Disabil 14:35–38, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Behar D, Rapoport JL, Adams AJ, et al:Sugar challenge testing with children considered behaviorally “sugar reactive.” Nutr Behav 1:277–288, 1984.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Milich R, Pelham WE: The effects of sugar ingestion on the classroom and playgroup behavior of attention deficit disordered boys. J Consult Clin Psychol 54:714–718, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Goldman JA, Lerman RH, Contois JH, et al: Behavioral effects of sucrose on preschool children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 14:565–577, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Conners CK, Glasgow A, Raiten D, et al: Hyperactives differ from normals in blood sugar and hormonal response to sucrose. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fernstrom JD, Wurtman RJ: Brain serotonin content: Physiological dependence on plasma tryptophan levels. Science 173:149–152, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fernstrom JD, Wurtman RJ: Brain serotonin content: Increase following ingestion of carbohydrate diet. Science 174:1023–1025, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Luft R, Cerasi E, Madison LL, et al: Effect of a small decrease in blood-glucose on plasma-growth hormone and urinary excretion of catecholamines in man. Lancet 2:254–256, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stegink LD: The aspartame story: A model for the clinical testing of a food additive. Am J Clin Nutrit 46: 204–215, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Leon AS, Hunninghake DB, Bell C, et al: Safety of long-term large doses of aspartame. Arch Int Med 149:2318–2324, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shaywitz BA, Anderson GM, Novotny EJ, Ebersole JS, Sullivan CM, Gillespie SM: Aspartame has no effect on seizures or epileptiform discharges in epileptic children. Ann Neurol 35:98–103, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wolf-Novak LC, Stegink LD, Brummel MC, et al: Aspartame ingestion with and without carbohydrate in Phenylketonurie and normal subjects: Effect on plasma concentrations of amino acids, glucose, and insulin. Metabolism 39:391–396, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mackey SA, Berlin CM Jr: Effect of dietary aspartame on plasma concentrations of phenylalanine and tyrosine in normal and homozygous Phenylketonurie patients. Clin Pediatr 31:394–399, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Trefz F, deSonneville L, Matthis P, Benninger C, Lanz-Englert B, Bickel H: Neuropsychological and biochemical investigations in heterozygotes for phenylketonuria during ingestion of high dose aspartame (a sweetener containing phenylalanine). Hum Genet 93:369–374, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wolraich ML, Lindgren SD, Stumbo PJ, Stegink LD, Appelbaum MI, Kiritsy MC: Effects of diets high in sucrose or aspartame on the behavior and cognitive performance of children. N Engl J Med 330:301–307, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shaywitz BA, Sullivan CM, Anderson GM, Gillespie SM, Sullivan B, Shaywitz SE: Aspartame, behavior, and cognitive function in children with attention deficit disorder [see comments]. Pediatrics 93:70–75, 1994. Comment in: Pediatrics 93:127–128, 1994. Comment in: Pediatrics 94:576, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Conners CK: The acute effects of caffeine on evoked response, vigilance, and activity level in hyperkinetic children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 7:145–151, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nehlig A, Debry G: Consequences on the newborn of chronic maternal consumption of coffee during gestation and lactation: A review. J Am Coll Nutr 13:6–21, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nehlig A, Debry G: Potential teratogenic and neurodevelopmental consequences of coffee and caffeine exposure: A review on human and animal data. Neurotoxicol Teratol 16:531–543, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 4. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Greden JF, Fontaine P, Lubetsky M, et al: Anxiety and depression associated with caffeinism among psychiatric inpatients. Am J Psychiatry 134:963–966, 1978.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gilliland K, Andress D: Ad lib caffeine consumption, symptoms of caffeinism and academic performance. Am J Psychiatry 138:512–514, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Boulenger JP, Uhde TW, Wolff EA, et al: Increased sensitivity to caffeine in patients with panic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41:1067–1071, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Eaton WW, McLeod J: Consumption of coffee or tea and symptoms of anxiety. Am J Public Health 74: 66–68, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Snyder SH: Adenosine as a mediator of the behavioral effects of xanthines, in Dews PB (ed): Caffeine. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1984.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schnackenberg RC: Caffeine as a substitute for schedule II stimulants in hyperkinetic children. Am J Psychiatry 130:796–798, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Huestis RD, Arnold LE, Smeltzer DJ: Caffeine versus methylphenidate and d-amphetamine in minimal brain dysfunction: A double-blind comparison. Am J Psychiatry 132:868–870, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Levitón A: Behavioral correlates of caffeine consumption by children. Paper presented at the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Pediatrics, New Orleans, 1991. Clin Pediatr 31:742–750, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rapoport JL, Berg CJ, Ismond DR, et al: Behavioral effects of caffeine in children:Relationship between dietary choice and effects of caffeine challenge. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41:1073–1079, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ (eds): Nutrition and the Brain. New York, Raven Press, 1979, vol 3.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Eisenberg J, Asnis GM, van Praag HM, et al: Effect of tyrosine on attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. J Clin Psychiatry 49:193–195, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Colquhoun ID: Attention deficit/hyperactive disorder: A dietary/nutritional approach. Ther Care Educ 3: 159–172, 1994.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Goyer RA: Nutrition and metal toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr 61(Suppl.):646S-650S, 1995.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wasserman GA, Graziano JH, Factor-Litvak P, Popovac D, Morina N, Musabegovic A, Vrenezi N, Capuni-Paracka S, Lekic V, Preteni-Redjepi E, et al: Consequences of lead exposure and iron supplementation on childhood development at age 4 years. Neurotoxicol Teratol 16:233–240, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Benton D, Roberts G: Effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation on intelligence of a sample of schoolchildren. Lancet 1:140–143, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Crombie IK, Todman J, McNeill G, et al: Effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation on verbal and nonverbal reasoning of schoolchildren. Lancet 335:744–747, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nelson M, Naismith DJ, Burley V, et al: Nutrient intakes, vitamin/mineral supplementation and intelligence in British schoolchildren. Br J Nutr 64:13–22, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Benton D, Buts JP: Vitamin/mineral supplementation and intelligence. Lancet 335:1158–1160, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schoenthaler S J, Amos SP, Eysenck HJ, et al: Controlled trial of vitamin-mineral supplementation: Effects on intelligence and performance. Pers Individ Differ 12:351–362, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Benton D, Cook R: Vitamin and mineral supplements improve the intelligence scores and concentration of six-year-old children. Pers Individ Differ 12:1151–1158, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nelson M, Paul AA: Unpublished work, described in Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy, Dietary Sugars and Human Disease: Department of Health Report on Health and Social Subjects No. 37. London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lipton MA, Mailman RB, Nemeroff CB: Vitamins, megavitamin therapy, and the nervous system, in Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ (eds): Nutrition and the Brain. New York, Raven Press, 1979, vol 3.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Aman MG, Singh NN: Vitamin, mineral and dietary treatments, in Aman MG, Singh NN (eds): Psychophar-macology of the Developmental Disabilities. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Haslam RH, Dalby JT, Rademaker AW: Effects of megavitamin therapy on children with attention deficit disorders. Pediatrics 74:103–111, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Arnold LE, Christopher J, Heustis RD, et al: Megavitamins for minimal brain dysfunction. JAMA 240:2642–2643, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kershner J, Hawke W: Megavitamins and learning disorders: A controlled double-blind experiment. JNutr 109:819–826, 1979.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cott A: Megavitamins: The orthomolecular approach to behavioral disorders and learning disabilities. Acad Ther 7:245–258, 1972.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rimland B: An orthomolecular study of psychotic children. J. Orthomol Psychiatry 3:371–377, 1974.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rimland B, Calloway E, Dreyfus P: The effect of high doses of vitamin B6 on autistic children: A double-blind crossover study. Am J Psychiatry 135:472–475, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Aman MG, VanBourgondien ME, Wolford PL, Sarphare G: Psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs in subjects with autism: Prevalence and patterns of use. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:1672–1681, 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Aman MG, Kern RA: The efficacy of folic acid in fragile X syndrome and other developmental disabilities. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 1:285–295, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kozlowski BW: Megavitamin treatment of mental retardation in children: A review of effects on behavior and cognition. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2:307–320, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pollitt E, Leibel RL, Greenfield DB: Iron deficiency and cognitive test performance in preschool children. Nutr Behav 1:137–146, 1983.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Moser-Veillon PB: Zinc: Consumption patterns and dietary recommendations. J Am Diet Assoc 90:1089–1093, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Colquhoun I, Bunday S: A lack of essential fatty acids as a possible cause of hyperactivity in children. Med Hypotheses 7:673–679, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Arnold LG, Votolato NA, Kleykamp D, Baker GB, Bornstein RA: Does hair zinc predict amphetamine improvement of ADD/hyperactivity? Int J Neurosci 50:103–107, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Needleman HL: The neurobehavioral consequences of low lead exposure in childhood. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 4:729–732, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Needleman HL: Low-level lead exposure in the fetus and young child. Neurotoxicology 8:389–394, 1982.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Needleman HL: The persistent threat of lead: A singular opportunity. Am J Pub Health 79:643–645, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Needleman HL, Gunnoe C, Levitón A, Reed R, Peresie H, Matter C, Barrett P: Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels. N Engl J Med 300:689–695, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Milar CR, Schroeder SR, Mushak P, et al: Failure to find hyperactivity in preschool children with moderately elevated lead burden. J Ped Psychol 1:85–95, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Thatcher RW, McAlaster R, Lester ML, et al: Comparisons among EEG, hair minerals and diet predictions of reading performance in children, in White S J, Teller V (eds): Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York, New York Academy of Sciences, 1984 vol. 425 pp 421–423.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lewis M, Worobey J, Ramsay DS, McCormack MK: Prenatal exposure to heavy metals: Effect on childhood cognitive skills and health status. Pediatrics 89:1010–1015, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Marlowe M: The violation of childhood: Toxic metals and developmental disabilities. J Orthomol Med 10:79–86, 1995.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Feingold B: Why Your Child Is Hyperactive. New York, Random House, 1975.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Harley JP, Ray RS, Tomasi L, et al: Hyperkinesis and food additives: Testing the Feingold hypothesis. Pediatrics 61:818–828, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Goldstein S, Ingersoll B: Controversial treatments for children with ADHD and impulse disorders, in Koziol LF, Stout CE, Ruben DH (eds): Handbook of Childhood Impulse Disorders and ADHD: Theory and Practice. Springfield, Ill, Charles C. Thomas, 1993, p. 236.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kaplan BJ, McNicol J, Conte RA, et al: Dietary replacement in preschool-aged hyperactive boys. Pediatrics 83:7–17, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Egger J, Carter CM, Graham PJ, et al: Controlled trial of oligoantigenic treatment in the hyperkinetic syndrome. Lancet 1:540–545, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Boris M, Mandel FS: Foods and additives are common causes of the attention deficit hyperactive disorder in children. Ann Allergy 72:462–468, 1994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schwab EK, Conners CK: Nutrient-behavior research with children: Methods, considerations, and evaluation. J Am Diet Assoc 86(3):319–326, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rowe KS, Rowe KJ: Synthetic food coloring and behavior: A dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study. J Pediatr 125:691–698, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Shrader WA: EPD History, Theory, and Results [on-line]. 1996. Available: http://www.tiac.net/users/kkv/epd-general.shtml Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Egger J, Stolla A, McEwen LM: Controlled trial of hyposensitisation in children with food-induced hyperkinetic syndrome [see comments]. Lancet 339:1150–1153, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Krieger I: Pediatric Disorders of Feeding, Nutrition, and Metabolism. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Keith Conners
    • 1
  • Elizabeth P. Sparrow
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Division of Medical PsychologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryWashington UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations