Severe Developmental Disabilities

  • Helen Evans
  • Eliezer Schwartz
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)


In his “Presidential Address of 1984,” presented to the readers of the journal Mental Retardation, H. J. Grossman stated:

Mental Retardation is a clinical term used to describe certain clinical manifestations which can be assessed clinically. Developmental disabilities, on the other hand, is not a clinical term. It includes individuals who have a variety of physical and clinical disorders, each with different implications for clinical care, education, and program planning, (p. 3)


Mental Retardation Adaptive Behavior Disable Child Mental Deficiency Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ainsworth, M. D. (1973). Patterns of attachment. In S. J. Hutt & C. Hutt (Eds.), Early human development (pp. 206–213). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, R. M., & Jefferson, T. W. (1962). Psychological evaluation of the cerebral palsied person. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Balthazar, E. E. (1976). Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.Google Scholar
  5. Baroff, G. S. (1974). Mental retardation: Nature, cause, and management. New York: Halstead Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barrett, J. H. W. (1982). Prenatal influences on adaptation in the newborn. In P. Stratton (Ed.), Psychology of the human newborn (pp. 267–295). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Bayley, N. (1969). Bayley Scales of Infant Development: Birth to two years. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  8. Berkson, G., & Landesman-Dwyer, S. (1977). Behavioral research on severe and profound mental retardation (1955–1974). American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 81, 428–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blacher, J. (1984a). Attachment and severely handicapped children: Implications for treatment. Journal of Development and Behavioral Pediatrics, 4(4), 178–183.Google Scholar
  10. Blacher, J. (1984b). Sequential stages of parental adjustment to the birth of a child with handicaps: Fact or artifact? Mental Retardation, 22, 55–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bobath, B. (1971). Abnormal postural reflex activity caused by brain lesions. London: William Heinmann.Google Scholar
  12. Bobath, B., & Bobath, K. (1975). Motor development in the different types of cerebral palsy. London: William Heinmann.Google Scholar
  13. Bolen, L. M., Childers, J. S., & Durham, T. W. (1984). The relationship of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales for residential retardates. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  14. Bonham, S. J. (1974). Predicting achievement of deaf children. Psychological Service Center Journal, 14, 35–44.Google Scholar
  15. Bowlby, J. (1980). Loss: Sadness and depression, attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  16. Burgess, D., Asher, K., Doucet III, Reardon, K., & Daste, M. (1984). Parent report as a means of administering the Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire: An evaluation study. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 84, 195–200.Google Scholar
  17. Carlisle, A. L., Shinedling, N. M., & Weaver, R. (1970). Note on the use of the Slossen Intelligence Test with mentally retarded residents. Psychological Reports, 26, 865–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Casati, I., & Lezine, I. (1968). Les étapes de l’intelligence sensorimotorice. Paris: Éditions du Centre de Psychologie Appliquée.Google Scholar
  19. Cattell, P. (1940). Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  20. Cattell, P. (1950). The measurement of intelligence of infants and young children. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  21. Chaney, R. H., & Eyman, R. K. (1982). Etiology of mental retardation: Clinical vs. neuroanatomic diagnosis. Mental Retardation, 20, 123–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Doll, E. A. (1935). A genetic scale of social maturity. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 5, 180–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Doll, E. A. (1940). The social basis of mental diagnosis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 24, 160–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doll, E. A. (1965). Vineland Social Maturity Scale Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  25. Dunn, L. M. (1959). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  26. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1981). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test—Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  27. Dunst, C. J. (1978). The structure of infant intelligence: An historical review. Intelligence, 2, 133–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunst, C. J. (1980). A clinical and educational manual for use with the Uzgiris-Hunt Scales. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  29. Dunst, C. J. (1982). The clinical utility of Piagetian-based scales of infant development. Infant Mental Health Journal, 3(4), 259–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dunst, C. J. (1983). A systems-level, family-focused approach to assessment and intervention with profoundly handicapped children. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Handicapped Children’s Early Education Program Conference, Washington, DC., December.Google Scholar
  31. Dunst, C. J., & Rheingrover, R. M. (1981). Discontinuity and instability in early development: Implications for assessment. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 1, 49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dunst, C. J., Brassell, W. R., & Rheingrover, R. M. (1981). Structural and organizational features of sensorimotor intelligence among retarded infants and toddlers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 133–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dunst, C. J., Rheingrover, R. M., & Kistler, E. D. (1983). Concurrent validity of the Uzgiris-Hunt Scales: Relationship to Bayley Scale Mental Age. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  34. Ellis, N. R., Deacon, J. R., Harris, L. A., Poor, A., Angers, D., Diorio, M. S., Watkins, R. S., Boyd, B. D., & Cavalier, A. R. (1982). Learning, memory and transfer in profoundly, severely and moderately mentally retarded. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 87, 180–196.Google Scholar
  35. Escalona, S., & Corman, H. (1966). Albert Einstein Scales of Sensorimotor Development. New York: Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  36. Fiorentino, M. R. (1963). Reflex testing methods for evaluating C.N.S. development. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  37. Fiorentino, M. R. (1972). Normal and abnormal development: The influence of primitive reflexes on motor development. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  38. Fogelman, C. (Ed.). (1975). AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale Manual. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Deficiency.Google Scholar
  39. Forness, S. R., & Nihira, K. C. (1984). Behavior of institutionalized retarded children. Educating and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 19, 222–227.Google Scholar
  40. Fraiberg, S. (1974). Blind infants and their mothers: An examination of the sign system. In M. Lewis & L. A. Rosenblum (Eds., pp. 215–232). The effect of the infant on its caregiver. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  41. Frankenburg, W. K., Dodds, J. B., Fandal, A. W., Kazuk, E., & Cohran, M. (1975). Denver Developmental Screening Test (Rev. Ed.). Denver: Ladoca Project and Publishing Foundation.Google Scholar
  42. Frankenburg, W. K., Camp, B., Van Watta, P. (1971). Validity of the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Child Development, 42, 475–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gardner, I. M., & Giampa, F. L. (1971). Utility of three behavioral indices for studying severely and profoundly retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 76, 353–356.Google Scholar
  44. Goldman, J., L’Engle-Stein, C. L., & Guerry, S. (1983). Psychological methods of child assessment. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  45. Grossman, H. J. (1984). Presidential address 1984: Mental retardation—1984 professional responsibilities. Mental Retardation, 22, 55–68.Google Scholar
  46. Grossman, J. J. (1973). Manual on terminology and classification in mental retardation of the American Association of Mental Disabilities. Baltimore: Garamond/Pridemack Press.Google Scholar
  47. Herst, J., Wolfe, S., Jorgensen, G., & Pallan, S. (1976). SEED developmental profiles: Sewall Early Education Developmental Program (Revised). Denver: Bureau of Education for the Handicapped, Sewall Rehabilitation Center.Google Scholar
  48. Hinde, R. A. (1982). Attachment: Some conceptual and biological issues. In C. M. Parks & J. Stevenson-Hinde (Eds.), The place of attachment in human behavior (pp. 60–76). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  49. Irvin, L. K., Gersten, R. M., & Heiry, T. J. (1984). Validating vocational assessment of severely mentally retarded persons: Issues and an application. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88, 411–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Isett, P. D., & Spreat, S. (1979). Test-retest and interrater reliability of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 84, 93–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Jones, O. H. M. (1979). A comparative study of mother-child communication with Down’s Syndrome and normal infants. In D. Shaffer & J. Dunn (Eds.), The first year of life (pp. 175–176). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. Kahn, J. V. (1983). Sensorimotor period and adaptive behavior development of severely and profoundly mentally retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88, 69–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaveggia, E. G., Durkin, M. V., Pendleton, E., & Ortiz, J. M. (1973). Diagnostic/genetic studies on 1,224 patients with severe mental retardation. Proceedings of the Third Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency, 11, 82–93.Google Scholar
  54. Knapp, S., & Salend, S. J. (1983). Adapting the adaptive behavioral scale. Mental Retardation, 21(2), 63–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Koch, R. & Dobson, J. C. (1976). The mentally retarded child and his family: A multidisciplinary handbook. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  56. Lambert, N., Windmiller, M., Cole, L., & Figueroa, R. (1975a). AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale: Public school version (1974 revision). Washington, DC: AAMD.Google Scholar
  57. Lambert, N., Windmiller, M., Cole, L., & Figueroa, R. (1975b). Standardization of a public school version of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale. Mental Retardation, 13(12), 3–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Leiter, R. G.(1969). Leiter International Performance Scale. Chicago: Stoelting.Google Scholar
  59. Leland, H. (1983). Adaptive behavior scales. In J. L. Matson & J. A. Mulick (Eds., pp. 215–225). Handbook of mental retardation. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  60. Matson, J. L., & Bruening, S. (1983). Assessing the mentally retarded. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  61. Matson, J. L., & McCarthey, J. R. (1981). Handbook of behavior modification with the mentally retarded. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McNemar, Q. (1942). The revision of the Stanford Binet Scales. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  63. Mealor, A. J., & Richmond, B. O. (1980). Adaptive behavior: Teachers and parents disagree. Exceptional Children, 46, 380–389.Google Scholar
  64. Merbler, J. B., & Wood, T. A. (1984). Assessing mobility of mentally retarded-blind. Educating and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 9, 228–230.Google Scholar
  65. Millham, J., Chilcutt, J., & Atkinson, B. (1978). Comparability of naturalistic and controlled observation assessment of adaptive behavior. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 83, 52–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Morganstern, M. (1983). Standard intelligence tests and related assessment techniques. In J. L. Matson & J. A. Mulick (Eds.), Handbook of mental retardation (pp. 201–214). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  67. Nihira, K., Foster, R., Shellhaas, M., & Leland, H. (1969). AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale. Washington, DC: American Association of Mental Deficiency.Google Scholar
  68. Piaget, J. (1951). Play, dreams, and imitation in childhood. New York: Newton.Google Scholar
  69. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York: International University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Piaget, J. (1954). The construction of reality in the child. New York: Basic Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Prechtl, H. F. R. (1982). Assessment methods for the newborn infant: A critical evaluation. In P. Stratton (Ed.), Psychobiology of the human newborn (pp. 21–52). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  72. Robinson, N. M., & Robinson, H. B. (1976). The mentally retarded child (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  73. Rotatori, A. F., & Epstein, M. H. (1978). The Slossen Intelligence Test as a quick screening test of mental ability with profoundly and severely retarded children. Psychological Report, 42, 1117–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rotatori, A. F., Fox, B., & Switzky, H. (1979). An indirect technique for establishing preferences for categories of reinforcement for severely and profoundly retarded individuals. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 48, 1307–1313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rotatori, A. F., Sedlak, B., & Freagon, S. (1979). Usefulness of the Slossen Intelligence Test with severely and profoundly retarded children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 48, 334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sattler, J. M. (1982). Assessment of children’s intelligence and special abilities (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  77. Slossen, R. L. (1963). Slossen Intelligence Test for Children and Adults. New York: Slossen Educational Publications.Google Scholar
  78. Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.Google Scholar
  79. Srouffe, L. A., & Waters, E. (1977). Attachment as an organizational construct. Child Development, 48, 1184–1199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stewart, K. D., & Meyers, D. G. (1974). Long-term validity of the Slossen Intelligence Test. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 180–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Terman, L. M. & Merrill, M. A. (1960). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  82. Thorndike, R. L. (1973). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Form L-M, 1972 Norm Tables). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  83. Uzgiris, I. (1983). Organization of sensorimotor intelligence. In M. Lewis (Ed.), Origins of Intelligence: Early childhood. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  84. Uzgiris, I., & Hunt, J. McV. (1975). Assessment in infancy: Ordinal scales of psychological development. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  85. Vanderveer, B., & Schweid, E. (1974). Infant assessment: Stability of mental functioning in young retarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 79, 1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Wachs, T., & Hubert, N. (1981). Changes in the structure of cognitive-intellectual performance during the second year of life. Infant Behavior and Development, 4, 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wechsler, D. (1967). Manual for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  88. Wechsler, D. (1974). Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  89. Wedell-Monnig, J., & Lumley, J. M. (1980). Child deafness and mother-child interaction. Child Development, 51, 766–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wells, D. G., & Pedrini, D. T. (1967). Relationship between the Stanford-Binet L-M, and PPVT with institutionalized retardates. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 72, 412–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Whitman, T., Scibak, J., & Reid, D. (1982). Behavior modification with the severely and profoundly retarded. Research and applications. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen Evans
    • 1
  • Eliezer Schwartz
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Illinois School of Professional PsychologyOne Quincy CourtChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Ray Graham Association for the HandicappedElmhurstUSA

Personalised recommendations