Advertisement

Collective Training in Virtual Environments

Exploring Performance Requirements for Dismounted Soldier Simulation
  • Stephen L. Goldberg
  • Bruce W. Knerr
Part of the Defense Research Series book series (DRSS, volume 6)

Abstract

Tactical training of combat units at battalion level and below has traditionally taken place primarily in the field. Field training exercises have allowed platoons, companies and battalions to use their equipment to practice maneuver and command and control skills. In the 1970’s the limitations of field training were beginning to become apparent. As the range of weapons increased, land areas once capable of supporting exercises involving 20,000 soldiers could no longer support even battalion size units. Safety and environmental issues were restricting exercise realism, and local training areas lacked a way to evaluate exercise outcomes (Chapman, 1991). In addition, the costs associated with field training were increasing dramatically, while overall defense budgets were beginning to fall.

Keywords

Virtual Environment Defense Advance Research Project Agency Defense Advance Research Project Agency Stereoscopic Display Simulator Sickness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alluisi, E.A. (1991). The development of technology for Collective training: SIMNET, A case history. HumanFactors, 33 (3), 343–362.Google Scholar
  2. Chapman, Anne W. (1991). The Army’s Training Revolution, 1973–1990: An Overview (Historical Study Series). Ft. Monroe, VA: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command.Google Scholar
  3. Franceschini, R.W., Parra, F.R., Watkins, J.E., Nanda, S., and Petty, M.D. (1993). SAFDI User’s Guide (IST Technical Report 92–23 ) Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida, Institute for Simulation and Training.Google Scholar
  4. Franceschini, R.W. and Petty, M.D. (1994). Dismounted infantry in DIS-style scenarios: A SAFDI project overview. In proceedings fo the Fourth CGFandBR Conference, pp 155–167.Google Scholar
  5. Goldberg, S.L., Mastaglio, T.W., and Johnson, W.R. (1995). Training in the Close Combat Tactical Trainer. Learning without Boundries: Technology to Support Distance/Distributed Learning, Edited by Seidel, R.J. and Chatelier, P.R., Plenum Press, New York, pp 119–133.Google Scholar
  6. Gorman, P.F. (1977). Toward National Training Centers for the U.S. Army (TRADOC Concept Papers). Ft Monroe, VA: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command.Google Scholar
  7. Gorman, P.F. (1990). Supertroop via I-Port: Distributed Simulation Technology for Combat Development and Training Development (IDA Paper P-2374). Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analysis.Google Scholar
  8. Jacobs, R.S., Crooks, W.H., Crooks, J.R., Colburn, E., Fraser, R.E., Gorman, P.F., Madden, J.L., Furness, T.A., and Tice, S.E. (1994). Behavioral Requirements for Training and Rehearsal in Virtual Environments (ARI Technical Report 1011 ). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  9. Kennedy, R.S., Lane, N.E., Berbaum, K.S., and Lillienthal, M.G. (1993). A simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ): A new method for quantifying simulator sickness. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3 (3), 203–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Knerr, B. W., Goldberg, S. L., Lampton, D. R., Witmer, B. G., Bliss, J. P., Moshell, J. M., and Blau, B. S. (1994). Research in the use of virtual environment technology to train dismounted soldiers. Journal of Interactive Instruction Development, 6 (4), 9–20.Google Scholar
  11. Kolasinski, E.M. (1995). Simulator sickness in virtual environments (ARI Technical Report 1027 ). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  12. Lampton, D.R., Knerr, B.W., Goldberg, S.L., Bliss, J. P., Moshell, J.M., and Blau, B.S. (1994). The Virtual Environments Performance Assessment Battery (VEPAB):Development and Evaluation. Presence, 3, 2.Google Scholar
  13. Lampton, D. R., Knerr, B. W., Goldberg, S. L., Bliss, J. P., Moshell, J. M., and Blau, B. S. (1995). The virtual environment performance assessment battery (VEPAB): Development and evaluation (ARI Technical Report 1029 ). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  14. Levison, W.H. and Pew, R.W. (1993). Use of Virtual Environment Technology for Individual Combat Simulation (ARI Technical Report 971 ). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  15. Meliza, L.L., Tan, S.C., White, S., Gross, W., and McMell, K. (1992). SIMNET Unit Performance Assessment System (UPAS) User’s Guide (ARI Research Product 92–0 Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  16. Regian, J.W., Shebilske, W.L., and Monk, J.M. (1992). Virtual Reality: An instructional medium for visual-spatial tasks. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 136–149.Google Scholar
  17. Reiss, David (1995) Personal communication, August, 1995.Google Scholar
  18. Singer, M.S., Ehrlich, J., Cinq-Mars, S., and Pappin, J. (in preparation). Task Performance in Virual Environments: Stereoscopic vs. Monoscopic Displays and Head-Coupling (ARI Technical Report). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  19. Schwab, J. (1995) Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  20. Sulzen, R. (1987) Winning the Airland Battle with Tactical Engagement Simulation. Military Review, May, pp. 8–19.Google Scholar
  21. Thorpe, J.A. (1987). The New Technology of Large Scale Simulator Networking: Implications, for Mastering theArt of Warfighting. In the Proceedings of the 9th Interservice Insustry Training System Conference (pp 492–501).Google Scholar
  22. Washington, D.C.: American Defense Preparedness Association, November 1987. U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (1989) Training Technology Conference. Ft. Monroe, VA.Google Scholar
  23. Witmer, B.G., Bailey, J.H., and Knerr, B.W. (1995). Training Dismounted Soldiers in Virtual Environments: Route Learning and Transfer (ARI Technical Report). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen L. Goldberg
    • 1
  • Bruce W. Knerr
    • 1
  1. 1.Simulator Systems Research UnitU.S. Army Research InstituteOrlandoUSA

Personalised recommendations