Retroviruses—Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  • William A. Blattner
  • Thomas R. O’Brien
  • Nancy E. Mueller


The harbinger of the worldwide pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was a handful of cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia clustered among homosexual men in Los Angeles, California(79); a short time later, a parallel epidemic of Kaposi’s sarcoma was reported. The thread that tied these disparate conditions together was profound immunodeficiency. In a brief time AIDS cases were recognized among hemophiliacs, transfusion recipients, and injection drug users from diverse geographic locales around the world. Subclinical perturbations of lymphocyte subsets were found in high-risk populations; a variety of theories was developed to account for the confusing emerging pattern: lifestyle, immune overload, and an infectious agent. Through the concerted efforts of scientists from different disciplines and countries, the cause was ultimately shown to be a new class of lenti-retrovirus now called human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • William A. Blattner
    • 1
  • Thomas R. O’Brien
    • 2
  • Nancy E. Mueller
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Human Virology, Medical Biotechnology CenterUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Viral Epidemiology Branch, Epidemiology and Biostatistics ProgramNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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