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Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2

  • Lawrence R. Stanberry
  • Daniel M. Jorgensen
  • André J. Nahmias

Abstract

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are among the most common communicable diseases of humans. The natural history of HSV infection is influenced by two features of the virus: (1) There are two distinct HSV serotypes: HSV-1, which is transmitted chiefly via a non-genital route, and HSV-2, which is most often transmitted sexually or from a mother’s genital infection to the newborn; and (2) during initial (primary) infection, HSV establishes a persistent state that is maintained for the life of the host. Periodically, the latent virus can be reactivated to cause symptomatic or subclinical recurrent infections. Hence, HSV infections may range from subclinical to life threatening, and the specific clinical illness will be determined by the portal of virus entry, the competence of the host immune system, and whether the infection is primary or recurrent.(248) Unless resulting from autoinoculation or sexual spread from the mouth to genital sites, HSV-1 infections occur most frequently during childhood and affect most often the mouth, lips, and skin sites above the waist; HSV-2 infections, on the other hand, occur most often during adolescence and young adulthood and involve skin sites below the waist, most often the genitalia. It should be emphasized, however, that both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can cause clinically indistinguishable infections above or below the waist. Most infections in newborns result from the infant passing through an infected birth canal or as an ascending infection; thus, most are due to HSV-2, although HSV-1 maternal genital infection is well documented. Postpartum infection of the newborn is uncommon but may be a particular problem with premature infants and babies born to women with primary, nongenital infection.

Keywords

Herpes Simplex Virus Herpes Simplex Virus Type Genital Herpes Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Recurrent Genital Herpes 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence R. Stanberry
    • 1
  • Daniel M. Jorgensen
    • 2
  • André J. Nahmias
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of PediatricsUniversity of Cincinnati College of Medicine, and Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology and Immunology, Department of PediatricsEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

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