In this chapter, we explore more of what might be termed modern statistics. In particular, we will explore nonparametric tests and bootstrapping. As with many things, it helps to explore the reasons why such modern methods might be useful in a little depth. We have organized this chapter into three main parts. The first delves philosophically into the reasoning behind the need for these methods, while again avoiding as much mathematics as possible. The second section covers our familiar process of methodologically introducing the packages and function calls for several useful nonparametric tests. Finally, we investigate bootstrapping, with examples highlighting the historically unprecedented power available now through modern computing.