The seed for the research reported in this book was planted nearly two decades ago. Like a lot of students attending college in California in the early 1970s, I found myself participating in an encounter group with about a dozen other students. In the middle of our fourth or fifth session, I remember asking myself this question: “Why am I hating this?” The answer came to me after a little reflection—I hate this because what happens during the two hours I spend twice a week in this windowless room is almost totally out of my control. The rules for social interaction I used to control my daily conversations did not apply here. Group members were encouraged to speak their minds and do whatever they wanted. The sessions seemed chaotic, and my attempts to establish some order or direction to our activities were either rejected or simply ignored.
KeywordsPersonal Control Achievement Motivation Secondary Control Control Score Personality Psychologist
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