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Loud Calls in Nocturnal Prosimians: Structure, Evolution and Ontogeny

  • Elke Zimmermann

Abstract

Loud, long-distance or advertisement calls belong to the most distinctive primate vocalizations. They travel over long distances and have been described in virtually every genus. Thus, they are found in almost all families of strepsirhines (e.g., Petter and Charles-Dominique, 1979; Zimmermann, 1990, in press, for reviews) and anthropoids (tarsiers: e.g., Niemitz, 1984; marmosets and tamarins: e.g., Snowdon, 1989; cebids: e.g., Oppenheimer,1977; Robinson, 1981; Sekulic, 1982; cercopithecids: e.g., Byrne, 1982; Gautier and Gautier, 1977; Hohmann, 1991; Waser, 1982; gibbons: e.g., Deputte, 1982; Marshall and Marshall, 1976; Mitani, 1992; apes: e.g., Boehm, 1989; Hohmann and Fruth, this volume; Marier and Tenaza, 1977; Mitani and Nishida, 1993). Since loud calls have a highly stereotypic and species-specific vocal pattern across all primate taxa, they are often used in combination with reproductive or biochemical characters to identify species within monomorphic species groups, to clarify the status in polymorphic species or to develop inferences about phylogeny (e.g., Struhsaker, 1970, for guenons; Oates and Trocco, 1983, and Struhsaker, 1981, for Colobus monkeys; Haimoff et al., 1982, Marshall and Marshall, 1976, Marshall and Sugardjito, 1986, for gibbons; Snowdon et al., 1986, for golden lion tamarins; Gautier, 1988, for guenons; Zimmermann et al., 1988, Zimmermann, 1990, for bushbabies; Niemitz et al., 1991, for tarsiers; Macedonia and Stanger, submitted, for diurnal lemurs).

Keywords

Mouse Lemur Advertisement Call Acoustic Structure Vocal Communication Loud Call 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Elke Zimmermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of BiocommunicationGerman Primate CenterGöttingenGermany

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