Advertisement

Ants and Termites As Food

Patterns of Mammalian Myrmecophagy
  • Kent H. Redford

Abstract

Many mammals, ranging from antelope to elephant shrews, eat ants and termites. The specialized mammalian myrmecophages (ant- and termite-eaters) such as aardvarks and pangolins have long drawn attention, but little work has been done on general predator-prey relationships between mammals and ants and termites.

Keywords

Food Habit Scrub Typhus Wild Chimpanzee Termite Mound Mammalian Predation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adis, J., Lubin, Y. D., and Montgomery, G. G., 1984, Arthropods from the canopy of inundated and terra firme forests near Manaus, Brazil, with critical considerations on the pyrethrum-fogging technique, Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 19:223–236.Google Scholar
  2. Albignac, R., 1974, Observations éco-éthologiques sur le genre Eupleres, Viverridae de Madagascar, Terre Vie 28:321–351.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, G. M., 1938, The Mammals of China and Mongolia, American Museum of Natural History, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Ansell, A. D. H., and Ansell, P. D. H., 1969, Petrodromus tetradactylus at Ngoma, Puku 5:211–213.Google Scholar
  5. Ansell, W. F. H., 1960, Contributions to the mammalogy of northern Rhodesia, Occ. Pap. Natl. Mus. S. Rhodesia 3:351–390.Google Scholar
  6. Ansell, W. F. H., 1964, Addenda and corrigenda to “Mammals of Northern Rhodesia,” Puku 2:14–52.Google Scholar
  7. Ansell, W. F. H., 1965, Addenda and corrigenda to “Mammals of Northern Rhodesia,” Puku 3:1–14.Google Scholar
  8. Arnold, G., 1915, A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa, Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 24:1–766.Google Scholar
  9. Ayres, J. M., and Nessimian, J. L., 1982, Evidence for insectivory in Chiropotes satanas, Primates 23:458–459.Google Scholar
  10. Azzaroli, L., and Simonetta, A. M., 1966, Carnivori della Somalia ex-Italiana, Monit. Zool. Ital. (Suppl.) 74:102–195.Google Scholar
  11. Baker, R. H., 1943, May food habits of armadillos in Eastern Texas, Am. Midl. Nat. 19:379–380.Google Scholar
  12. Barlow, J. C., 1969, Observations on the biology of rodents in Uruguay, Life Sci. Contrib. R. Ont. Mus. 75:1–59.Google Scholar
  13. Beebe, W., 1922, The giant armadillo, Zool. Soc. Bull. 25:117–120.Google Scholar
  14. Beeman, L. E., and Pelton, M. R., 1980, Seasonal foods and feeding ecology of black bears in the Smoky Mountains, in: Bears—Their Biology and Management (C. J. Martinka and K. L. McArthur, eds.), Bear Biology Association USGPO, pp. 141-147.Google Scholar
  15. Beng, T. K., 1965, Stomach contents of some Borneo mammals, Sarawak Mus. J. 12:373–385.Google Scholar
  16. Bequaert, J., 1922, The predaceous enemies of ants, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 45:271–331.Google Scholar
  17. Bodenheimer, F. S., 1951, Insects as Human Food, Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
  18. Bolton, B., 1973, The ant genera of West Africa: A synonymic synopsis with keys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Buil. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 27:317–368.Google Scholar
  19. Borchert, M., and Hansen, R. L., 1983, Effects of flooding and fire on valley side wet campo rodents in Central Brazil, Rev. Bras. Biol. 43(3):229–240.Google Scholar
  20. Bothma, J. du P., 1959, Notes on the stomach contents of certain Carnivora (Mammalia) from the Kalahari Gemsbok Park, Koedoe 9:37–39.Google Scholar
  21. Bothma, J. du P., 1965, Random observations on the food habits of certain Carnivora (Mammalia) in Southern Africa, Fauna Flora 16:16–22.Google Scholar
  22. Bothma, J. du P., 1971, Food habits of some Carnivora (Mammalia) from Southern Africa, Ann. Transv. Mus. 27:15–26.Google Scholar
  23. Bothma, J. du P., and Nel, J. A. J., 1980, Winter food and foraging behavior of the aardwolf Proteles cristatus in the Namib-Naukluft Park, Madoqua 12:141–149.Google Scholar
  24. Bothma, J. du P., Nel, J. A. J., and Macdonald, A., 1984, Food niche separation between four sympatric Namib Desert carnivores, J. Zool. Lond. 202:327–340.Google Scholar
  25. Bourliere, M. F., and Verschuren, J., 1972, Exploration du Parc National des Cirunga, Fascicule 3, Foundation pour favoriser recherche scientifique en Afrique, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  26. Buttikofer, J., 1890, Reisebilder aus Liberia, E. J. Brill, Leiden.Google Scholar
  27. Calaby, J. H., 1960, Observations on the banded ant-eater Myrmecobius f. fasciatus Water-house (Marsupialia), with particular reference to its food habits, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 135:183–207.Google Scholar
  28. Carvalho, J. C. M., 1966, Novos dados sôbre a alimentação do tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758), Edentata, Mammalia, An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 38:341–345.Google Scholar
  29. Carvalho, J. C. M., and Kloss, G. R., 1951, Sôbre a alimentação do tamanduá-bandeira (“Myrmecophaga tridactyla” L., 1758), Rev. Bras. Biol. 11:37–42.Google Scholar
  30. Charles-Dominique, P., 1971, Éco-éthologie des prosimiens du Gabon, Biol. Gabon. 7:121–228.Google Scholar
  31. Charles-Dominique, P., Atramentowicz, M., Charles-Dominique, M., Gerard, H., Hladik, A., Hladik, C. M., and Prevost, M. F., 1981, Les mammifères frugivores arbicoles nocturnes d’une forêt Guyanaise: Inter-relations plantes-animaux, Rev. Ecol. 35:341–435.Google Scholar
  32. Chew, R. M., 1979, Mammalian predation on honey ants, Myrmecocystus (Formicidae), Southwest. Nat. 24:677–682.Google Scholar
  33. Cole, L. R., 1975, Foods and foraging places of rats (Rodentia: Muridae) in the lowland evergreen forest of Ghana, J. Zool. Lond. 175:453–471.Google Scholar
  34. Coles, H. R., 1980, Defensive strategies in the ecology of neotropical termites, Ph. D. thesis, University of Southampton.Google Scholar
  35. Coles de Negret, H. R., and Redford, K. H., 1982, The biology of nine termite species (Termitidae: Isoptera) from the cerrado of central Brazil, Psyche 89:81–106.Google Scholar
  36. Crabb, W. D., 1941, Food habits of the prairie spotted skunk in southeastern Iowa, J. Mamrnal. 22:349–364.Google Scholar
  37. Davis, D. D., 1962, Mammals of the lowland rain forest of North Borneo, Bull. Singapore Natl Mus. 31:1–129.Google Scholar
  38. Dean, W. R. J., 1978, Stomach contents of a specimen of Proteles cristatus from Angola (Carnivora: Protelidae), Zool. Afr. 13:164.Google Scholar
  39. De Graaf, G., 1981, The Rodents of Southern Africa, Butterworths, Durban.Google Scholar
  40. Delany, M. J., 1964, An ecological study of the small mammals of the Queen Elizabeth Park, Uganda, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 70:129–147.Google Scholar
  41. Deligne, J., Quennedey, A., and Blum, M. S., 1981, The enemies and defense mechanisms of termites, in: Social Insects, Volume II (H. R. Hermann, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 2–76.Google Scholar
  42. Dobroruka, L. J., 1970, Individual variation of external and cranial characters in the aardwolf, Proteles cristatus (Sparrman, 1783), Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 82:163–170.Google Scholar
  43. Dubost, G., 1963, Un ruminant à régime alimentaire partiellement carné: Le chevrotain aquatique (Hyemoschus aquaticus Ogilby), C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 256:1359–1360.Google Scholar
  44. Dubost, G., 1965, Un ruminant à régime alimentaire partiellement carné: Le chevrotain aquatique (Hyemoschus aquaticus Ogilby), Biol. Gabon. 1:21–23.Google Scholar
  45. Du Toit, C. F., 1980, The yellow mongoose Cynictis penicillata and other small carnivores in the Mountain Zebra National Park, Koedoe 23:179–184.Google Scholar
  46. Eadie, W. R., 1939, A contribution to the biology of Parascalops breweri, J. Mammal. 20:150–173.Google Scholar
  47. Earle, R. A., 1981, Aspects of the social and feeding behaviour of the yellow mongoose Cynictis penicillata (G. Cuvier), Mammalia 45:143–152.Google Scholar
  48. Edwards, C. A., and Lofty, J. R., 1977, Biology of Earthworms, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Eisenberg, J. F., and Lockhart, M., 1972, An ecological reconnaisance of Wilpattu National Park, Ceylon, Smith. Contrib. Zool. 101:1–118.Google Scholar
  50. Elgmork, K., 1981, Bjorn og rev i maurtuer, Fauna 34:147–149.Google Scholar
  51. Emmons, L. H., 1975, Ecology and behavior of African rainforest squirrels, Ph. D. thesis, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  52. Emmons, L. H., 1980, Ecology and resource partitioning among nine species of African rain forest squirrels, Ecol. Monogr. 50:31–54.Google Scholar
  53. Enke, B., 1978, Sieben Jahre Tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla) im Krefelder Zoo, Zool. Gart. 48:19–30.Google Scholar
  54. Errington, P. L., 1937, Summer food habits of the badger in northwestern Iowa, J. Mammal. 18:213–216.Google Scholar
  55. Erwin, T. L., 1983, Tropical forest canopies: The last biotic frontier, Bull. Ecological Society of America 1983 (Spring):14–19.Google Scholar
  56. Fetherstonhaugh, A. H., 1940, Some notes on Malayan bears, Malay Nat J. 1:15–18.Google Scholar
  57. Field, A. C, 1975, Seasonal changes in reproduction, diet and body composition of two equatorial rodents, East Afr. Wildl. J. 13:221–235.Google Scholar
  58. Fitch, H. S., Goodrum, P., and Newman, C, 1952, The armadillo in the southeastern United States, J. Mammal. 33:21–37.Google Scholar
  59. Fittkau, E. J., and Klinge, H., 1973, On biomass and trophic structure of the central Amazonian rain forest ecosystem, Biotropica 5:2–14.Google Scholar
  60. Fleay, D., 1942, The numbat in Victoria, Victorian Nat. 59:3–7.Google Scholar
  61. Fossati, L., 1937, Abitudini dell’ oritteropo d’Eritrea, Natura Milano 28:17–23.Google Scholar
  62. Freeland, W. J., and Janzen, D. H., 1974, Strategies in herbivory by mammals: The role of plant secondary compounds, Am. Nat. 108:269–289.Google Scholar
  63. Freese, C. H., 1976, Predation on swollen-thorn acacia ants by white-faced monkeys, Cebus capucinus, Biotropica 8:278–281.Google Scholar
  64. Friend, T., 1982, The numbat—An endangered specialist, Aust. Nat Hist 20(10):339–342.Google Scholar
  65. Galdikas-Brindamour, B., and Brindamour, R., 1975, Orangutans, Indonesia’s “people of the forest,” Nat. Geogr. 148:444–473.Google Scholar
  66. Gautier-Hion, A., 1978, Food niches and coexistence in sympatric primates in Gabon, Rec. Adv. Primatol 1:269–286.Google Scholar
  67. Gautier-Hion, A., 1980, Seasonal variations of diet related to species and sex in a community of Cercopithecus monkeys, J. Anim. Ecol. 49:237–269.Google Scholar
  68. Genest-Villard, H., 1980, Régime alimentaire des rongeurs myomorphes de forêt équatoriale (région de M’Baiki, République Centrafricaine), Mammalia 44:423–484.Google Scholar
  69. Gittins, S. P., and Raemaekers, J. J., 1980, Siamang, lar and agile gibbons, in: Malayan Forest Primates (D. J. Chivers, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 63–106.Google Scholar
  70. Goodall, J., 1963, Feeding behaviour of wild chimpanzees, Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 10:39–47.Google Scholar
  71. Greegor, D. H., 1974, Comparative ecology and distribution of two species of armadillos, Chaetophractus vellerosus and Dasypus novemcinctus, Ph. D. thesis, University of Arizona.Google Scholar
  72. Griffiths, M., 1968, Echidnas, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  73. Griffiths, M, 1978, The Biology of the Monotremes, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Griffiths, M., and Simpson, K. G., 1966, A seasonal feeding habit of spiny anteaters, CSIRO Wildl. Res. 11:137–143.Google Scholar
  75. Grimm, R., 1970, Blaubocken (Cephalophus monticola (Thunberg, 1798); Cephalophinae, Bovidae) als Insektenfresser, Z. Säugetierkd. 35:357–359.Google Scholar
  76. Haddow, A. J., 1952, Field and laboratory studies on an African monkey, Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti Matschie, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 122:197–394.Google Scholar
  77. Hall, K. R. L., 1965, Behaviour and ecology of the wild Patas monkey, Erythrocebus patas in Uganda, J. Zool. Lond. 148:15–87.Google Scholar
  78. Hall, S., 1980, The diets of two coexisting species of Antechinus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae), Aust. Wildl. Res. 7:365–378.Google Scholar
  79. Hall-Martin, A. J., and Botha, B. P., 1980, A note on feeding habits, ectoparasites and measurements of the black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas from Addo Elephant National Park, Koedoe 23:157–162.Google Scholar
  80. Hamilton, W. J., III, Buskirk, R. E., and Buskirk, W. H., 1978, Omnivory and utilization of food resources by Chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, Am. Nat. 112:911–924.Google Scholar
  81. Hanney, P., 1964, The harsh furred rat in Nyasaland, J. Mammal. 45:345–358.Google Scholar
  82. Hanney, P., 1965, The Muridae of Malawi (Africa: Nyasaland), J. Zooi. Lond. 146:577–633.Google Scholar
  83. Harrison, J. L., 1950, Notes on some small mammals of Malaya, Bull. Raffles Mus. 23:300–309.Google Scholar
  84. Harrison, J. L., 1954, The natural food of some rats and other mammals, Bull. Raffles Mus. 25:157–165.Google Scholar
  85. Hatt, R. T., 1940, Lagomorpha and Rodentia other than Sciuridae, Anomaluridae and Idiuridae. Collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist Bull. 76:1939–1940.Google Scholar
  86. Hegh, E., 1922, Les Termites, Desmet-Verreneuil, Brussels.Google Scholar
  87. Heinsohn, G. E., 1966, Ecology and reproduction of the Tasmanian bandicoots (Perameles gunni and Isoodon obesulus), Univ. Calif. Puhl. Zool. 80:1–96.Google Scholar
  88. Hermann, H. R., and Blum, M. S., 1981, Defensive mechanisms in the social Hymenoptera, in: Social Insects, Volume II (H. R. Hermann, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 77–179.Google Scholar
  89. Herzig-Straschil, B., 1977, Notes on the feeding habits of the yellow mongoose Cynictis penicillata, Zool. Afr. 12:225–256.Google Scholar
  90. Hladik, C. M., 1973, Alimentation et activité d’un groupe de chimpanzés reintroduits en forêt Gabonaise, Terre Vie 27:343–413.Google Scholar
  91. Hladik, C. M., 1977a, A comparative study of the feeding strategies of two sympatric species of leaf monkeys: Preshytis senex and Presbytis entellus, in: Primate Ecology (T. H. Clutton-Brock, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 324–354.Google Scholar
  92. Hladik, C. M., 1977b, Chimpanzees of Gabon and chimpanzees of Gombe: Some comparative data on the diets, in: Primate Ecology (T. H. Clutton-Brock, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 481–503.Google Scholar
  93. Hladik, C. M., and Hladik, A., 1972, Disponibilités alimentaires et domaines vitaux des primates a Ceylon, Terre Vie 1:149–215.Google Scholar
  94. Honacki, J. H., Kinman, K. E., and Koeppl, J. W., 1982, Mammal Species of the World, Allen Press, Lawrence.Google Scholar
  95. Horner, B. B., Taylor, J. M., and Padykula, H. A., 1965, Food habits and gastric morphology of the grasshopper mouse, J. Mammal. 45:513–535.Google Scholar
  96. Hubert, B., Gillon, D., and Adam, F., 1981, Cycle annuel du régime alimentaire des trois principales espèces de rongeurs (Rodentia; Gerbillidae et Muridae) de Bandia (Sénégal), Mammalia 45:1–20.Google Scholar
  97. Husson, A. M., 1978, The Mammals of Suriname, E. J. Brill, Leiden.Google Scholar
  98. Hutton, A. F., 1949, Notes on the Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata, Geoffer. St. Hilaire), J. Bombay Nat Hist. Soc. 48:805–806.Google Scholar
  99. Iwuala, M. O. E., Braide, E. I., and Maduka, N., 1980, Observations on the food habits of some African rodents, Rev. BioJ. Trop. 28:227–236.Google Scholar
  100. Izawa, K., 1975, Foods and feeding behavior of monkeys in the Upper Amazon Basin, Primates 16:295–316.Google Scholar
  101. Izawa, K., 1979, Foods and feeding behavior of wild black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella), Primates 20:57–76.Google Scholar
  102. Izawa, K., and Yoneda, M., 1981, Habitat utilization of nonhuman primates in a forest of the Western Pando, Bolivia, Kyoto Univ. Overseas Res. Rep. New World Monkeys 1981:12–22.Google Scholar
  103. Jewell, P. A., and Oates, J. F., 1969, Ecological observations on the lorisoid primates of African lowland forest, Zool. Afr. 4:231–248.Google Scholar
  104. Kalmbach, E. R., 1944, The Armadillo: Its Relation to Agriculture and Game, Game Fish and Oyster Commission, Austin, Texas.Google Scholar
  105. Kappler, A., 1887, Surinam, Land, Seine Natur, Bevolkeruna und seine Kultur-Verhaltnisse, J. G. Cotta’sche, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  106. Kaufmann, J. H., 1962, Ecology and social behavior of the coati, Nasua narica on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, Univ. Calif. Puhl. Zool. 60:95–222.Google Scholar
  107. Ketelhodt, H. F. V., 1966, Der erdwolf, Proteles cristatus (Sparrman, 1783), Z. Säugetierkd. 31:300–308.Google Scholar
  108. Kingdon, J., 1971, East African Mammals, Volume I, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Kingdon, J., 1974a, East African Mammals, Volume II, (A) (Insectivores and Bats), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Kingdon, J., 1974b, East African Mammals, Volume II, (B) (Hares and Rodents), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  111. Kingdon, J., 1977, East African Mammals, Volume III, (A) (Carnivores), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  112. Koop, K., and Velimirov, B., 1982, Field observations on activity and feeding of bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) at Nyai Pan, Botswana, Afr. J. Ecol. 20:23–27.Google Scholar
  113. Kreyenberg, M., 1907, Das chinesische schuppentier, Zool. Reohach. 48:182–185.Google Scholar
  114. Kruuk, H., and Sands, W. A., 1972, The aardwolf (ProteJes cristatus Sparrman, 1783) as predator of termites, East Afr. Wildl. 10:211–227.Google Scholar
  115. Landry, S. O., Jr., 1970, The rodentia as omnivores, Q. Rev. Biol. 45:351–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Langham, N. P. E., 1982, The ecology of the common tree shrew, Tupaia gJis, in peninsular Malaysia, J. Zool. Lond. 197:323–344.Google Scholar
  117. Langham, N. P. E., 1983, Distribution and ecology of small mammals in three rain forest localities of peninsula Malaysia with particular reference to Kedah Peak, Riotropica 15:199–206.Google Scholar
  118. Laurie, A., and Seidensticker, J., 1977, Behavioural ecology of the sloth bear (MeJursus ursinus), J. Zool. Lond. 182:187–204.Google Scholar
  119. Lekagul, B., and McNeely, J. A., 1977, Mammals of Thailand, Kurusapha Ladprao Press, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  120. Levings, S. C, 1983, Seasonal, annual, and among-site variation in the ground ant community of a deciduous tropical forest: Some causes of patchy species distributions, Ecol. Monogr. 53:435–455.Google Scholar
  121. Lim, B. L., 1965, Food and weights of small animals from the First Division, Sarawak, Sarawak Mus. J. 12:360–372.Google Scholar
  122. Lim, B. L., 1967, Note on the food habits of Ptilocercus lowii Gray (pentail tree shrew) and Echinosorex gymnurus (Raffles) (moonrat) in Malaya with remarks on “ecological labelling” by parasite patterns, J. Zool. Lond. 152:375–379.Google Scholar
  123. Lim, B. L., and Heyneman, D., 1968, A collection of small mammals from Tuaran and the southwest face of Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah, Sarawak Mus. J. 16:257–276.Google Scholar
  124. Llewellyn, L. M., and Uhler, F. M, 1952, The foods of für animals of the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, Am. Midi. Nat. 48:193–203.Google Scholar
  125. Lubin, Y. D., and Montgomery, G. G., 1981, Defenses of Nasutitermes termites (Isoptera, Termitidae) against tamandua anteaters (Edentata, Myrmecophagidae), Biotropica 13:66–76.Google Scholar
  126. Lynch, C. D., 1980, Ecology of the suricate, Suricata suricatta and yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata with special reference to their reproduction, Mem. Nas. Mus. Bloemfontein 14:1–145.Google Scholar
  127. Macdonald, D. W., 1980, The red fox, VuJpes vulpes, as a predator upon earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, Z. Tierpsychoi. 52:171–200.Google Scholar
  128. MacKinnon, J., 1974, The behavior and ecology of wild orangutans, Anim. Behav. 22:3–74.Google Scholar
  129. Massoia, E., and Fornes, A., 1954, Notas sobre el genero Scapteromys (Rodentia-Cricetidae), Physis 24:279–297.Google Scholar
  130. Mathews, A. G. A., 1977, Studies on termites from the Mato Grosso State, Brazil, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro.Google Scholar
  131. McBeath, N. M., and McGrew, W. C., 1982, Tools used by wild chimpanzees to obtain termites at Mt. Assirik, Senegal: The influence of habitat, J. Hum. Evol. 11:65–72.Google Scholar
  132. McGrew, W. C., 1974, Tool use by wild chimpanzees in feeding upon driver ants, J. Hum. Evol. 3:501–508.Google Scholar
  133. McGrew, W. C., 1983, Animal foods in the diets of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Why cross-cultural variation?, J. Ethol. 1:46–61.Google Scholar
  134. McGrew, W. C., Tutin, C. E. G., and Baldwin, P. J., 1979, Chimpanzees, tools and termites: Cross-cultural comparisons of Senegal, Tanzania, and Rio Muni, Man 14:185–214.Google Scholar
  135. Mcintosh, D. L., 1963, Food of the fox in the Canberra District, CSIBO Wildl. Res. 8:1–20.Google Scholar
  136. McNab, B. K., 1984, Physiological convergence among ant-eating and termite-eating mammals, J. Zool. Lond. 203:485–510.Google Scholar
  137. Melton, D. A., 1976a, The biology of aardvark (Tubulidentata-Orycteropidae), Mammal. Rev. 6:75–88.Google Scholar
  138. Melton, D. A., 1976b, Environmental heterogeneity produced by termitaria in western Uganda with special reference to mound usage by vertebrates, M. S. thesis, University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  139. Menzies, J. I., 1962, Feeding pangolins (Manis spp.) in captivity, Int. Zoo Yearbk. 4:126–128.Google Scholar
  140. Menzies, J. I., 1966, A note on the nutrition of the tree pangolin Manis tricuspis in captivity, Int. Zoo Yearbk. 6:71.Google Scholar
  141. Merrit, D. A., 1985, Naked-tailed armadillos, Cabassous sp., in: Ecology and Evolution of Sloths, Anteaters and Armadillos (Mammalia, Xenarthra = Edentata) (G. G. Montgomery, ed.), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 389-392.Google Scholar
  142. Mill, A. E., 1982a, Foraging and defensive behaviour in Neotropical termites, Ph. D. thesis, University of Southampton.Google Scholar
  143. Mill, A. E., 1982b, Populaçōes de termitas (Insecta, Isoptera) em quatro habitats no baixo Rio Negro, Acta Amazon. 12:53–60.Google Scholar
  144. Mills, M. G. L., and Mills, M. E. J., 1978, The diet of the brown hyaena, Hyaena brunnea in the southern Kalahari, Koedoe 21:125–149.Google Scholar
  145. Moeller, E., 1975, Present-day Edentates, in: Animal Life Encyclopedia, Mammals II (B. Grzimek, ed.), Van Nostrand, New York, pp. 149–181.Google Scholar
  146. Montgomery, G. G., 1979, EI grupo alimentico (feeding guild) del oso hormiguero, Conciencia 6:3–6.Google Scholar
  147. Montgomery, G. G., 1983, Cyclopes didactylus, in: Costa Rican Natural History (D. H. Janzen, ed.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 461–463.Google Scholar
  148. Montgomery, G. G. (ed.), 1985, Movements, foraging, and food habits of the four extant species of Neotropical Vermilinguas (Mammalia: Myrmecophagidae) in: Ecology and Evolution of Sloths, Anteaters and Armadillos (Mammalia, Xenarthra = Edentata), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 365-377.Google Scholar
  149. Montgomery, G. G., and Lubin, Y. D., 1977, Prey influences on movements of Neotropical anteaters, in: Proceedings of the 1975 Predator Symposium (R. L. Phillips and C. Jonkel, eds.), University Montana, Missoula, pp. 103-131.Google Scholar
  150. Moojen, J., 1965, Novo gênero de Cricetidae do Brasil central, Rev. Bras. Biol. 25:281–285.Google Scholar
  151. Neal, E. G., 1970, The banded mongoose, Mungos mungo Gmelin, East Afr. Wildl. J. 8:63–71.Google Scholar
  152. Neal, E. G., 1977, Badgers, Blanford Press, Dorset.Google Scholar
  153. Nel, J. A.J., 1978, Notes on the food and foraging behavior of the bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis, Bull. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. 6:132–137.Google Scholar
  154. Newman, H. H., 1913, The natural history of the nine-banded armadillo of Texas, Am. Nat. 47:513–539.Google Scholar
  155. Newsome, A. E., 1962, Rabbit-eared bandicoots or bilbies, Aust. Nat. Hist. 14:97–98.Google Scholar
  156. Nicoll, M. E., 1982, Reproductive ecology of Tenrec ecaudatus (Insectivora: Tenrecidae) in the Seychelles, Ph. D. thesis, University of Aberdeen.Google Scholar
  157. Nishida, T., 1973, The ant-gathering behaviour by the use of tools among wild chimpanzees of the Mahali Mountains, J. Hum. Evol. 2:357–370.Google Scholar
  158. Nishida, T., and Hiraiwa, M., 1982, Natural history of a tool-using behavior by wild chimpanzees in feeding upon wood-boring ants, J. Hum. Evol. 11:73–99.Google Scholar
  159. Nishida, T., and Uehara, S., 1980, Chimpanzees, tools and termites: Another example from Tanzania, Curr. Anthropol. 21:671–672.Google Scholar
  160. Novikov, G. A., 1962, Carnivorous Mammals of the Fauna of the U.S.S.R., Israel Program Scientific Translation, Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  161. Pacheco, J., and Naranjo, C. J., 1978, Field ecology of D. sabanicola in Venezuela, in: The Armadillo as an Experimental Model in Biomedical Research, Pan American Health Organization Scientific Publication No. 336, pp. 13-17.Google Scholar
  162. Pages, E., 1965, Notes sur les pangolins du Gabon, Biol. Gabon. 1:209–238.Google Scholar
  163. Pages, E., 1970, Sur l’écologie et les adaptations de l’orycterope et des pangolins sympatriques du Gabon, Biol. Gabon. 6:23–92.Google Scholar
  164. Pages, E., 1975, Etude éco-éthologique de Manis tricuspis par radiotracking, Mammalia 39:613–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Patterson, B., 1975, The fossil aardvarks (Mammalia: Tubulidentata), Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 147:185–237.Google Scholar
  166. Pocock, R. I., 1941, The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma Mammalia, Volume II, Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  167. Prakash, I., 1959, Food of some Indian desert mammals, J. Biol. Sci. 2:100–109.Google Scholar
  168. Prater, S. H., 1965, The Book of Indian Animals, Diocesan Press, Madras.Google Scholar
  169. Prestwich, G. D., 1984, Defense mechanisms of termites, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 29:201–232.Google Scholar
  170. Rahm, U., and Christiaensen, A., 1963, Les mammifères de la region occidentale du Lac Kivu, Mus. ser IN8 (Sci. Zool.) 118:1–83.Google Scholar
  171. Ramirez, M. F., Freese, C. H., and Revilla, J., 1977, Feeding ecology of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea, in northeastern Peru, in The Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae (D. G. Kleiman, ed.), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C, pp. 91-104.Google Scholar
  172. Rathbun, G. B., 1979, The social structure and ecology of elephant-shrews, Z. Tierpsychol. (Suppl.) 20:1–76.Google Scholar
  173. Redford, K. H., 1983, Mammalian myrmecophagy: Foraging, feeding and food preference, Ph. D. thesis, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  174. Redford, K. H., 1984a, The termitaria of Cornitermes cumulons (Isoptera, Termitidae) and their role in determining a potential keystone species, Biotropica 16:(2):112–119.Google Scholar
  175. Redford, K. H., 1984b, Mammalian prédation on termites: Tests with the burrowing mouse (Oxyniycterus roberti) and its termite prey, Oecologia 65:145–152.Google Scholar
  176. Redford, K. H., 1985a, Feeding and food preference in captive and wild giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridaetyla), J. Zool. Lond. 209:559–572.Google Scholar
  177. Redford, K. H., 1985b, Food habits of armadillos (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae), in: Ecology and Evolution of Sloths, Anteaters and Armadillos (Mammalia, Xenarthra = Edentata) (G. G. Montgomery, ed.), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 429–437.Google Scholar
  178. Redford, K. H., and Dorea, J. G., 1984, The nutritional value of invertebrates with emphasis on ants and termites as food for mammals, J. Zool. Lond. 203:385–395.Google Scholar
  179. Rengger, J. R., 1830, Naturges chichte der Saeugethiere von Paraguay, Schweighanserschen, Basel.Google Scholar
  180. Rijksen, H. D., 1978, A field study on Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus Abelii Lesson 1827), Meded. Landbouwhogesch. Wageningen 78:1–420.Google Scholar
  181. Roberts, T. J., 1977, The Mammals of Pakistan, Ernest Benn, London.Google Scholar
  182. Roberts, T. J., Vielliard, T., 1971, Commentaires sur le grand pangolin Indien Manis crassicaudata, Mammalia 35:610–613.Google Scholar
  183. Robinson, J. G., 1986, Seasonal variation in use of time and space by the wedge-capped capuchin monkey Cebus olivaceus: Implications for foraging theory, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., pp. 1-60.Google Scholar
  184. Rood, J. P., 1975, Population dynamics and food habits of the banded mongoose, East Afr. Wild. J. 13:89–111.Google Scholar
  185. Roonwal, M. L., 1949, Systematica, ecology and bionomics of mammals studied in connection with Tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus) in the Assam-Burma war theatre during 1945, Trans. Natl. Inst. Sci. India 3:67–122.Google Scholar
  186. Rowe-Rowe, D. T., 1978, The small carnivores of Natal, Lammergeyer 25:1–48.Google Scholar
  187. Ruddle, K., 1973, The human use of insects: Examples from the Yukpa, Biotropica 5:94–101.Google Scholar
  188. Schaller, G. B., 1967, The Deer and the Tiger, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  189. Schaller, G. B., 1983, Mammals and their biomass on a Brazilian ranch, Pap. Avulsos Zool. (Sāo Paulo) 31(2):1–36.Google Scholar
  190. Schultze, W., 1914, Notes on the Malay pangolin, Manis javanica Desmarest, J. Phil. Sci. (D) 9:93–97.Google Scholar
  191. Shaw, J. H., Carter, T. S., and Machedo-Neto, J. C, 1985, Ecology of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridaetyla) in Serra da Canastra (MG.) Brazil, in: Ecology and Evolution of Sloths, Armadillos and Anteaters (G. G. Montgomery, ed.), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C, pp. 379-388.Google Scholar
  192. Sheppe, W. A., 1973, Notes on Zambian rodents and shrews, Puku 7:168–190.Google Scholar
  193. Silveira, E. K. P., 1968, Notas sôbre a historia natural do tamanduá-mirim (Tamandua Tetmdactyla chirquensis J. A. Allen 1904, Myrmecophagidae), com referencias a fauna do Istmo do Panama, VelIozia 6:9–30.Google Scholar
  194. Silveira, E. K. P., 1969, Historia natural do tamandua-bandeira, Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linn. 1758, Myrmecophagidae, Vellozia 7:34–234.Google Scholar
  195. Smith, A., 1982, Is the striped possum (Dactylopsila trivirgata; Marsupialia, Petauridae) an arboreal anteater?, Aust. Mammal. 5:229–234.Google Scholar
  196. Smithers, R. H. N., 1971, The Mammals of Botswana, Trustees Natl. Mus. Rhodesia Mus. Mem. 4:1–340.Google Scholar
  197. Smyth, D. R., and Philpott, C. M., 1968, Field notes on rabbit bandicoots Macrotis lagostis Reid (Marsupialia), from central western Australia, Trans. R. Soc. S. Australia 92:3–14.Google Scholar
  198. Sowerby, A. de C, 1925, The pangolin, China J. Sci. Arts 3:151–153.Google Scholar
  199. Stoddart, D. M., and Braithwaite, R. W., 1979, A strategy for utilization of regenerating heathland habitat by the brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus; Marsupialia, Peramelidae), J. Anim. Ecol. 48:165–179.Google Scholar
  200. Struhsaker, T. T., 1967, Ecology of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the Masai-Amboseli Game Reserve, Kenya, Ecology 48:891–904.Google Scholar
  201. Stuart, C. T., 1976, Diet of the black backed jackal Canis mesomelas in the Central Namib Desert, South West Africa, Zool. Afv. 11:193–205.Google Scholar
  202. Suzuki, A., 1966, On the insect-eating habits among wild chimpanzees living in the savanna woodland of western Tanzania, Primates 7:481–487.Google Scholar
  203. Svendsen, G. E., 1982, Weasels. Mustela spp., in: Wild Mammals of North America (J. A. Chapman and G. A. Feldhamer, eds.), Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 613–628.Google Scholar
  204. Sweeney, R. C. H., 1956, Some notes on the feeding habits of the ground pangolin, Smutsia temminckii (Smuts), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12th Ser. 9:893–896.Google Scholar
  205. Tate, G. H. H., 1951, The banded anteater, Myrmecobius Waterhouse (Marsupialia), Am. Mus. Novit 1521:1–8.Google Scholar
  206. Terborgh, J., 1983, Five New World Primates, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  207. Thomas, O., and Wroughton, R. C, 1909, On mammals from the Rhio Archipelago and Malay Peninsula collected by Messrs. H. C. Robinson, C. Boden Kloss and E. Seimund, and presented to the National Museum by the Government of the Federated Malay States, J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 4:99–129.Google Scholar
  208. Uehara, S., 1982, Seasonal changes in the technique employed by wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania, to feed on termites (Pseudoacanthotermes spiniger), Folia Primatol. 37:44–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Urbain, A., 1954, Biologie de l’orycterope, Mus. R. Congo. Belge Sci. Zool. 1:101–105.Google Scholar
  210. Van Deusen, H. M., and George, G. G., 1969, Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 90. Notes on the Echidnas (Mammalia, Tachyglossidae) of New Guinea, Am. Mus. Novit. 2383:1–23.Google Scholar
  211. Verheyen, R., 1951, Contribution à l’étude éthologiques des mammifères du Parc National de l’Upemba, Institut des Parcs Nationaux du Congo Belge, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  212. Verheyen, W., and Verschuren, J., 1966, Exploration du Parc National de la Garamba, Institut des Parcs Nationaux du Congo No. 50, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  213. Vestgens, M. J. M., and Hall, L. S., 1977, Stomach contents of forty-two species of bats from the Australian region, Aust. Wildl. Res. 4:25–35.Google Scholar
  214. Vossler, J., 1907, Aus dem leben ostafrikanischer sauger, Zool. Beohach. 48:193–206.Google Scholar
  215. Walker, E. P., 1975, Mammals of the World, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  216. Waser, P., 1977, Feeding, ranging and group size in the mangabey, Cercocebus albigena, in: Primate Ecology (T. H. Clutton-Brock, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 183–222.Google Scholar
  217. Waser, P. M., 1980, Small nocturnal carnivores: Ecological studies in the Serengeti, Afr. J. Ecol. 18:167–185.Google Scholar
  218. Weber, N. A., 1972, Gardening Ants. The Attines, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  219. Whitaker, J. O., Jr., 1966, Food of Mus musculus, Peromyscus maniculatus bairdi and Peromyscus leucopus in Vigo County, Indiana, J. Mammal. 47:473–486.Google Scholar
  220. Wilson, E. O., 1971, The Insect Societies, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  221. Wilson, D. S., and Clark, A. B., 1977, Above ground predator defense in the harvester termite, Hodotermes mossambicus (Hagen), J. Entomol. Soc. S. Afr. 40:271–282.Google Scholar
  222. Zietz, A., 1872, Ameisenbar und Termiten, Zool. Gart. 1872:301–304.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kent H. Redford
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Museum of Comparative ZoologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Zoological Research, National Zoological ParkSmithsonian InstitutionUSA

Personalised recommendations