Current Management Strategies for Commensal Rodents

  • William B. Jackson


The commensal rodents (literally, those with whom we share our table) conventionally are the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), roof rat (R. rattus), and house mouse (Mus musculus). All are of Asian origin, introduced to North America by early European immigrants and traders; and these populations now have been augmented from around the world. Native rodents, such as white-footed and deer mice (Peromyscus spp.) and various species of squirrels, frequently invade structures, but their management is much the same as for the traditional commensal species.


Pest Control Integrate Pest Management House Mouse Bait Station Rodent Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Al-Sanei, K. S., 1983, Proceedings of the First Symposium on Recent Advances in Rodent Control (A. H. Helmy Mohammad, T. M. Zaghloul, and M. Zakaria, eds.), Kuwait Ministry of Public Health.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, R. V., and Belknap, R. W., 1984, Efficacy of alpha-chlorohydrin in sewer rat control, J. Hyg. 91:359–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous, 1980, IPM for rats in urban areas, IPM Practitioner 2(3):2 p.Google Scholar
  4. Ashton, A. D., 1986, Performance of Vengeance (bromethalin) in urban environments, presented at the Twelfth Vertebrate Pest Conference, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
  5. Ashton, A. D., and Jackson, W. B., 1984, Anticoagulant resistance in the house mouse in North America, in: Proceedings Conference on the Organisation and Practice of Vertebrate Pest Control (A. Dubock, ed.), ICI, Fernhurst, England, pp. 181-188.Google Scholar
  6. Ashton, A. D., Jackson, W. B., and Peters, H., 1985, Comparative evaluation of LD50 values for various anticoagulant rodenticides, in: Fourth International Theriological Congress, Edmonton, AJberta, Canada, Abstracts of Papers and Posters, No. 0032.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, B., 1983, About glue traps: Some are better than others, Pest Control 51(2):5.Google Scholar
  8. Batten, P. L., 1985, Antidotes to anticoagulants, Vet. Record 117(3):343.Google Scholar
  9. Boyle, C. M., 1960, Case of apparent resistance of Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout to anticoagulant poisons, Nature 188:517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Braithwaite, G. B., 1982, Vitamin K and brodifacoum, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 181:531, 534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brandt, E., and Zarow, L., 1985, Results of National Urban Pesticide Applicator Survey, by EPA, Pest Manage. 4(1):30–32.Google Scholar
  12. Buck, W. B., 1983, Trends of Toxicoses and Chemical Contamination in Dogs and Cats Encountered by the Animal Poison Control Center, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.Google Scholar
  13. Davis, D. E., and Jackson, W. B., 1981, Rat control, Adv. Appl. Biol. 6:221–277.Google Scholar
  14. Dubock, A., 1982, Pulsed baiting—A new technique for high potency, slow acting rodenticides, in: Proceedings Tenth Vertebrate Pest Conference (R. E. Marsh, ed.), University of California, pp. 123-136.Google Scholar
  15. Dubock, A. (ed.), 1984, Proceedings of a Conference on: The Organisation and Practice of Vertebrate Pest Control, ICI Plant Protection Division, Fernhurst, England.Google Scholar
  16. EPA, 1983, Tamper-Proof Bait Boxes, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, PR Notice 83-5, pp. 1-6.Google Scholar
  17. Ericsson, R. J., 1982, Alpha-chlorohydrin (Epibloc): A toxicant-sterilant as an alternative in rodent control, in: Proceedings Tenth Vertebrate Pest Conference (R. E. Marsh, ed.), University of California, pp. 6-9.Google Scholar
  18. Frantz, S. C, and Padula, C. M., 1983, A laboratory test method for evaluating the efficacy of glueboards for trapping mice, in: Vertebrate Pest Control and Management Methods, ASTM STP 817 (D. E. Kaukeinen, ed.), American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 209-225.Google Scholar
  19. Fukui, H. H., 1985, Pivalyl-resistance in Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus), M. S. thesis, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio.Google Scholar
  20. Griffith, W., 1983, Epiblock rodenticide introduces a new concept in long-term rodent control, Pest Control Technol. 11(4):42–44, 67.Google Scholar
  21. Howard, W. E., and Marsh, R. E., 1985, Ultrasonics and electromagnetic control of rodents, Acta Zool. Fenn. 173:187–189.Google Scholar
  22. Immerman, F. W., and Drummond, D. J., 1984, National Urban Pesticide Applicator Survey: Overview and Results, U. S. EPA, Economic Analysis Branch, Office of Pesticide Programs (RTI/2 764/08-01F).Google Scholar
  23. Jackson, W. B., 1977, Evaluation of rodent depredations to crops and stored products, EPPO Bull. 7(2):439–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jackson, W. B., 1980, Ultrasonics protect egg farm, Pest Control 48(8):28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38.Google Scholar
  25. Jackson, W. B., 1984, Urban rodent control in the United States, in: Proceedings Conference on the Organisation and Practice of Vertebrate Pest Control (A. Dubock, ed.), ICI, Fernhurst, England, pp. 61–71.Google Scholar
  26. Jackson, W. B., 1985, Single-feeding rodenticides: New chemistry, new formulations, and chemosterilants, Acta Zool. Fenn. 173:167–169.Google Scholar
  27. Jackson, W. B., 1987, Rodenticide resistance, in: Rodent Pest Management (I. Prakash, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, in press.Google Scholar
  28. Jackson, W. B., and Ashton, A. D., 1986, Case histories of anticoagulant resistance, in: Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics Management, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D. C., pp. 355–369.Google Scholar
  29. Jackson, W. B., and Hann, W. D., 1987, Rats and rabies, in preparation.Google Scholar
  30. Jackson, W. B., Spear, P. T., and Wright, C, 1971, Resistance of Norway rats to anticoagulant rodenticides confirmed in the United States, Pest Control 39(9):13–14.Google Scholar
  31. Jackson, W. B., Spaulding, S. R., van Lier, R. B. L., and Dreikorn, B. A., 1982, Bromethalin—A promising new rodenticide, in: Proceedings Tenth Vertebrate Pest Conference (R. E. Marsh, ed.), University of California, pp. 10-16.Google Scholar
  32. Kassa, H., and Jackson, W. B., 1984, Bait acceptance and chemosterilant efficacy of alpha-chlorohydrin in the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, Int. Pest Control 26(1):7–11.Google Scholar
  33. Kaukeinen, D. E., 1986, Systematic evaluations of bait stations under controlled conditions, Presented at Symposium on Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Control and Management Materials, American Society for Testing and Materials, San Diego, March 7.Google Scholar
  34. Link, K. P., 1959, The discovery of dicumarol and its sequels, Circulation 19:97–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Matschke, G. H., and Hegdal, P. L., 1985, Efficacy of Two Lower Concentrations of 1080 bait, 0.022% and 0.035%, Compared to the Standard 1080 Bait, 0.112%, for Controlling Black-tailed Prairie Dog Populations, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver Wildlife Research Center.Google Scholar
  36. McCartney, W. C, and Jackson, W. B., 1986, The effects of ultrasound on the movement patterns of Norway rats in a grain mill, Pest Contr., in press.Google Scholar
  37. Miller, G. T., Jackson, W. B., and Ashton, A. D., 1985, Development of coated zinc phosphide rodenticide, in: Proceedings 12th International Symposium on Controlled Release of Bioactive Materials, 8–12 July, Geneva, Controlled Release Society, p. 339.Google Scholar
  38. Mix, J., 1985, Tamper-proof stations: Will they stay or go?, Pest Control 53(8):34.Google Scholar
  39. Moore, R. M., Jr., Zelmer, R. B., Moulthrop, J. I., and Parker, R. L., 1977, Surveillance of animal bite cases in the United States, 1971–1972, Arch. Environ. Health 32(6): 267–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moreland, D., 1985, What’s all the fuss about “tamper-proof” bait boxes?, Pest Control Technol 11(9):46–48.Google Scholar
  41. Myllymaki, A. (ed.), 1985, Rodent ecology. Applied theriology. Insectivores. Bats. Part V, Proceedings of the Third International Therological Congress, Helsinki, Acta Zool. Fenn. 173.Google Scholar
  42. National Park Service, 1982, Integrated Pest Management, Year Three, Final Report.Google Scholar
  43. National Research Council, 1980, Urban Pest Management, National Academy Press, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  44. Nelson, B. C, Madon, M. B., and Tilzer, A., 1986, The complexities at the interface amongst domestic/wild rodents, fleas, pets and man in urban plague ecology in Los Angeles County, in: Proceeding of Twelfth Vertebrate Pest Conference (Terrell P. Salmon, ed.), San Diego, California, pp. 88-96.Google Scholar
  45. NPCA, 1985, Tamper-resistant Bait Stations, Technical Release, National Pest Control Association, ESPC 041338-041345.Google Scholar
  46. Olkowski, W., and Daar, S., 1985, Update: Plague on the rise, IPM Practitioner 7(10):1–8.Google Scholar
  47. Olkowski, W., Olkowski, H., and Daar, S., 1984, IPM for the house mouse, IPM Practitioner 6(7):6–10.Google Scholar
  48. PHS, 1980, Rabies prevention, Morbidity Mortality Weekly Rep. 29(23):265–272, 277-280.Google Scholar
  49. Rowsell, H. C., Ritcey, J., and Cox, F., 1979, Assessment of humaneness of vertebrate pesticides, Presented at CALAS Convention, University of Guelph, June 25–28.Google Scholar
  50. Thiermann, A. B., 1977, Incidence of leptospirosis in the Detroit rat population, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 26(5):970–974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Thiermann, A. B., and Frank, R. R., 1980, Human leptospirosis in Detroit and the role of rats as chronic carriers, Int. J. Zoonoses 7:62–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Verbiscar, A. J., Banigan, T. F., and Gentry, H. S., 1986, Recent research on red squill as a rodenticide potential, in: Proceeding of the Twelfth Vertebrate Pest Conference (Terrell P. Salmon, ed.), San Diego, California, pp. 51-56.Google Scholar
  53. WHO, 1970, Instructions for determining the susceptibility or resistance of rodents to anticoagulant rodenticides, World Health Org. Tech. Rep. 443:140–147.Google Scholar
  54. Wodzicki, K., 1973, Prospects for biological control of rodent populations, Bull. World Health. Org. 48:461–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • William B. Jackson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesBowling Green State UniversityBowling GreenUSA

Personalised recommendations