Emerging Technologies for Cryocooler Interfaces
New technologies are emerging for improved interface designs for advanced cryocooler applications. Advanced cryogenic heat pipes are being developed for low temperature heat transport systems. These devices are typically designed to attach to a cryocooler or heat sink device at one end and a heat load at the other end. Several test units have been developed for aerospace applications, and have recently been tested in microgravity. An acetone heat pipe interface was developed for interfacing between a refrigerator air volume at 250K and a Stirling cooler heat sink. A nitrogen heat pipe was developed for heat transport in microgravity at temperatures between 65 K and 115 K. Both of these units were flight tested in 1994 on the Space Shuttle (STS).
Further development is being pursued to develop heat transport systems for cryocooler interfaces. Ongoing development includes an adaptation of the Russian loop heat pipe technologies, as well as improved interfaces for Space Station refrigerator/freezers. Technologies proposed for development include quick-cooling cryogenic heat pipe interfaces, development of redundant pressure containment envelopes for cryogenic heat pipes, and evaluation of additional low temperature working fluids. Availability of these technologies to the cryocooler community will significantly simplify designs and open new applications for cryocooler-based systems.
KeywordsHeat Pipe NASA Goddard Space Loop Heat Pipe Cold Head Wick Structure
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Chi, S.W., “Heat Pipe Theory and Practice”, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington, DC, USA. (1976).Google Scholar
- 2.Dunn, P.D., and Reay, D.A., “Heat Pipes”, Pergamon Press, Oxford, England 3rd ed. (1982).Google Scholar
- 3.“Advanced Refrigerator/Freezer Technology Development.” RFP3-534802 issued by NASA Lewis Research Center, May 24, 1994.Google Scholar
- 4.K. McDonald, D. Berchowitz, J. Rosenfeld, and J. Lindemuth. “Stirling Refrigerator for Space Shuttle Experiments.” To be presented at the 29th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Paper No. 94-4179, Monterey, CA, August 7–12 1994.Google Scholar
- 5.Antoniuk, D., “Development of an Oxygen Axial Groove Heatpipe for a Microgravity Flight Experiment”, AIAA 26th Thermophysics Conference, AIAA-91-1357, June 24–26, 1991, Honolulu, HI.Google Scholar
- 6.Fleischman, G.L., Chiang, T.C., Ruff, R.D., “Oxygen Heat Pipe 0-G Performance Evaluation Based on 1-G Tests”, AIAA 26th Thermophysics Conference, AIAA91-1358, June 24–26, 1991, Honolulu, III.Google Scholar
- 7.Rosenfeld, J.H., “Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer in Porous Wick Structures”, Proceedings of the 1989 National Heat Transfer Conf., Philadelphia, PA, HTD Vol. 108, “Heat Transfer Fundamentals Design, Applications, and Operating Problems”, ed. R.H. Shah, ASME, (1989), pp. 47-55.Google Scholar
- 8.G. Compagna and J. Rosenfeld. “Development of High Performance Sintered Powder Metal Wick Cryogenic Heat Pipes”, AIAA Thermophysics, Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, Paper No. AIAA-88-2651, San Antonio, TX, June 27–29, 1988.Google Scholar
- 9.J. Rosenfeld and R. Keller. “Sintered Powder Artery-Free Cryogenic Heat Pipe.” Contract No. NAS5-30783. Final Report being prepared for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 1994.Google Scholar
- 10.Flight Data Review for the Cryogenic Heat Pipe (CRYOHP) Flight Experiment, Wright Laboratories, March 3, 1993.Google Scholar
- 11.“Self Priming Loop Heat Pipe” U.S. Patent 4,515, 209.Google Scholar