Advertisement

Coping with Chronic Work Stress

  • C. Gail Hepburn
  • Catherine A. Loughlin
  • Julian Barling
Part of the The Springer Series on Stress and Coping book series (SSSO)

Abstract

Most people spend much of their waking lives involved in paid employment. Therefore, work is a context that demands our collective attention. For some time we have recognized that many individuals experience stress while engaging in paid employment. Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, and Rosenthal (1964) estimated that at any point in time, one third of the working population experience chronic stress, and there is no reason to suspect that any reduction in this number of people has taken place.

Keywords

Coping Strategy Coping Style Work Stress Role Conflict Occupational Stress 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AmericanPsychiatricAssociation. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Amirkhan, J. H. (1990). A factor analytically derived measure of coping: The coping strategy indicator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1066–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Appelbaum, E. (1992). Structural change and the growth of part-time and temporary employment. In V. L. DuRivage (Ed.), New policies for the part-time and contingent workforce (pp. 1–13 ). New York: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  4. Astrand, N. E., Hanson, B. S., and IsACssoN, S. O. (1989). Job demands, job decision latitude, job support and social network factors as predictors of mortality in a Swedish pulp and paper company. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 46, 334–340.Google Scholar
  5. Barling, J. (1990). Employment, stress and family functioning. Toronto: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Beehr, T. A., Johnson, L. B., and Nieva, R. (1995). Occupational stress: Coping of police and their spouses. journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berridge, J., and Cooper, C. L. (1993). Stress and coping in US organizations: The role of the Employee Assistance Programme. Work and Stress, 7, 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhagat, R. S., Allie, S. M., and Ford, D. L., JR. (1991). Organizational stress, personal life stress and symptoms of life strains: An inquiry into the moderating role of styles of coping. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6 (7), 163–184.Google Scholar
  9. Blaghly, P. H., Osterud, M. D., and Josslin, R. (1963). Suicide in professional groups. The New England Journal of Medicine, 268, 1278–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boumans, N. P. G., and Landeweerd, J. A. (1992). The role of social support and coping behaviour in nursing work: Main or buffering effect? Work and Stress, 6, 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Broadbent, D. E. (1985). The clinical impact of job design. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, 33–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brockner, J. (1988). The effects of work layoffs on survivors: Research, theory, and practise. Research in Organizational Behavior, 10, 213–255.Google Scholar
  13. Burke, R. J. (1993). Organizational-level interventions to reduce occupational stressors. Work and Stress, 7, 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burke, R. J., and Belcourt, M. L. (1974). Managerial role strain and coping responses. Journal of Business Administration, 5 (2), 55–68.Google Scholar
  15. Campion, M. A., and Mcclelland, C. L. (1991). Interdisciplinary examination of the costs and benefits of enlarged jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 186–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Campion, M. A., and Mcclelland, C. L. (1993). Follow-up and extension of the interdisciplinary costs and benefits of enlarged jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 339–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooper, C. L., and Cartwright, S. (1994). Healthy mind, healthy organization-A proactive approach to occupational stress. Human Relations, 47 (4), 455–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cox, T., and Ferguson, E. (1991). Individual difference, stress and coping. In C. L. Cooper and R. Payne (Eds.), Personality and stress: Individual differences in the stress process (pp. 730). Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Daly, J. (1994, March 14). The four-day week. Maclean’s, 36–38.Google Scholar
  20. Decker, P. J., and Borgen, F. H. (1993). Dimensions of work appraisal: Stress, strain, coping, job satisfaction, and negative affectivity. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 40, 470–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dewe, P. (1989). Examining the nature of work stress: Individual evaluations of stressful experiences and coping. Human Relations, 42, 993–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dewe, P. (1991). Primary appraisal, secondary appraisal and coping: Their role in stressful work encounters. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 331–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dewe, P. J. (1992a). Applying the concept of appraisal to work stressors: Some exploratory analysis. Human Relations, 45, 143–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dewe, P. (1992b). The appraisal process: Exploring the role of meaning, importance control and coping in work stress. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 5, 95–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dewe, P. (1993). Measuring primary appraisal: Scale construction and directions for future research. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8, 673–685.Google Scholar
  26. Dewe, P., Cox, T., and Ferguson, E. (1993). Individual strategies for coping with stress at work: A review. Coping with stress at work. Work and Stress, 7, 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dewe, P. J., and Guest, D. E. (1990). Methods of coping with stress at work: A conceptual analysis and empirical study of measurement issues. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 135–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Edwards, J. R. (1992a). A cybernetic theory of stress, coping, and well-being in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 17 (2), 238–274.Google Scholar
  29. Edwards, J. R. (1992b). The determinants and consequences of coping with stress. In C. L. Cooper and R. Payne (Eds.), Causes, coping and consequences of stress at work ( 2nd ed., pp. 233–263 ). Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  30. Endler, N. S., and Parker, J. D. A. (1990). Multidimensional assessment of coping: A critical evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 844–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Feldman, S. (1991). Today’s Eaps make the grade. Personnel, 68, 3–40.Google Scholar
  32. Fell, R. D., Richard, W. C., and Wallace, W. L. (1980). Psychological job stress and the police officer. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 8, 139–144.Google Scholar
  33. Fisher, C. D., and Gitelson, R. (1983). A meta-analysis of the correlates of role conflict and ambiguity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 320–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Folkman, S., and Lazarus, R. S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: Study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 150–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Delongis, A., and Gruen, R. J. (1986). Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 992–1003.Google Scholar
  36. Frone, M. R., Russell, M., and Cooper, M. L. (1991). Relationship of work and family stressors to psychological distress: The independent moderating influence of social support, mastery, active coping, and self-focused attention. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6 (7), 227–250.Google Scholar
  37. Ganster, D. C., Mayes, B. T., Sime, W. E., and Tharp, G. D. (1982). Managing occupational stress: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 533–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Garson, B. (1989). The electronic sweatshop: How computers are transforming the office of the future into the factory of the past. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  39. Gibb-Clark, M. (March 16, 1992 ). Lawyers, literati, and buffoons. Globe and Mail, p. B6.Google Scholar
  40. Greenglass, E. R., and Burke, R. J. (1991). The relationship between stress and coping among Type As. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 361–373.Google Scholar
  41. Hackman, J. R., and Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  42. Halpert, J. A., Wilson, M. L., and Hickman, J. L. (1993). Pregnancy as a source of bias in performance appraisals. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 649–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hancock, L. (March 6, 1995). Breaking point. Newsweek, pp. 56–61.Google Scholar
  44. Hartley, J. (1995). Challenge and change in employment relations: Issues for psychology, trade unions and managers. In L. Tetrick and J. Barling (Eds.), Changing employment relations: Behavioral and social perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  45. Havlovic, S. J., and Keenan, J. P. (1991). Coping with work stress: The influence of individual differences. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6 (7), 199–212.Google Scholar
  46. Hurrell, J. J. (1995). Police work, occupational stress and individual coping. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 27–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ivancevich, J. M., Matteson, M. T., Freedman, S. M., and Phillips, J. S. (1990). Worksite stress management interventions. American Psychologist, 45, 252–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jackson, A. (July 24, 1993 ). Drive to part-time work overestimated. Globe and Mail, p. D7.Google Scholar
  49. Jackson, P. R. (1988). Personal networks, social mobilization and unemployment. Psychological Medicine, 18, 397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jackson, S. E. (1983). Participation in decision making as a strategy for reducing job-related strain. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jahoda, M., Lazarsfeld, P. F., and Zeisel, H. (1933). Marienthal: The sociography of an unemployed community. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  52. Kahn, R. L. (1980). Conflict, ambiguity and overload: Three elements in job stress. In D. Katz, R. L. Kahn, and J. S. Adams (Eds.), The study of organizations: Findings from field and laboratory (pp. 418–428 ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  53. Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R. P., Snoek, J. D., and Rosenthal, R. A. (1964). Role stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  54. Kanter, R. M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic books.Google Scholar
  55. Karasek, R. A., and Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work: Stress, productivity and the reconstruction of working life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  56. Kroes, W. H., Margolis, B. L., and Hurrell, J. J. (1974). Job stress in policemen. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 2, 145–155.Google Scholar
  57. Latack, J. C. (1986). Coping with job stress: Measures and future direction for scale development. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 377–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Latack, J. C., and Havlovic, S. J. (1992). Coping with job stress: A conceptual evaluation framework for coping measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 479–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lazarus, R., and Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  60. Lund, J. (1992). Electronic performance monitoring: A review of research issues. Applied Ergonomics, 23, 54–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mcdonald, L. M., and Korabik, K. (1991). Sources of stress and ways of coping among male and female managers. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6 (7), 185–198.Google Scholar
  62. Mcnamee, M. (1994, January 24). Robert’s rules of reorder. Business Week, 74–75.Google Scholar
  63. Menaghan, E. G., and Merves, E. S. (1984). Coping with occupational problems: The limits of individual efforts. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 25, 406–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moos, R., and Billings, A. (1982). Conceptualizing and measuring coping resources and processes. In L. Goldberger and S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  65. Murphy, L. R. (1992). Workplace interventions for stress reduction and prevention. In C. L. Cooper and R. Payne (Eds.), Causes, coping and consequences of stress at work ( 2nd ed., pp. 301–339 ). Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. Murphy, L. R., and Sorensen, S. (1988). Employee behaviors before and after stress management. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 9, 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Newton, T. J. (1989). Occupational stress and coping with stress: A critique. Human Relations, 42, 441–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Newton, T. J., and Keenan, A. (1985). Coping with work-related stress. Human Relations, 38, 107–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nord, W. R. (1977). Job satisfaction reconsidered. American Psychologist, 32, 1026–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Palmer, C. E. (1983). A note about paramedics’ strategies for dealing with death and dying. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56, 83–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Parkes, K. R. (1994). Personality and coping as moderators of work stress processes: Models, methods and measures. Work and Stress, 8 (2), 110–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pierce, J. L., and Newstrom, J. W. (1983). The design of flexible work schedules and employee responses: Relationships and processes. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 4, 247–262.Google Scholar
  73. Pratt, L. I., and Barling, J. (1988). Differentiating between daily events, acute, and chronic stressors: A framework and its implications. In J. R. Hurrell, L. R. Murphy, S. L. Sauter, and C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Occupational stress: Issues and developments in research (pp. 41–53 ). London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  74. RosE, K. D., and Rosow, I. (1973). Physicians who kill themselves. Archives of General Psychiatry, 29, 800–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sauter, S. L., Murphy, L. R., and Hurrell, J. J. (1990). Prevention of work-related psychological disorders: A national strategy proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Niosh). American Psychologist, 45, 1146–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schaubroeck, J., Ganster, D. C., Sime, W. E., and Ditman, D. (1993). A field experiment testing supervisory role clarification. Personnel Psychology, 46, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schein, E. H. (1980). Organizational Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  78. Schwartz, J. E., and Stone, A. A. (1993). Coping with daily work problems: Contributions of problem content, appraisals, and person factors. Work and Stress, 7, 47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shinn, M., Rosario, M., Morch, H., and Chestnut, D. E. (1984). Coping with job stress and burnout in the human services. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 864–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Swimmer, G. (1990). Gender based differences in promotions of clerical workers. Relations Industrielles, 45 (2), 300–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Theorell, T., Perski, A., Orth-Gomer, K., Hamsten, A., and DE Faire, U. (1991). The effects of the strain of returning to work on the risk of cardiac death after a first myocardial infarction before the age of 45. International Journal of Cardiology, 30, 6167.Google Scholar
  82. Thompson, M. (1994, May 23). The living room war. Time, 36–37.Google Scholar
  83. Tilly, C. (1992). Short hours, short shrift: The causes and consequences of part-time employment. In V. L. DuRivage (Ed.), New policies for the part-time and contingent workforce (pp. 15–44 ). New York: M. E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  84. Violanti, J. M. (1992). Coping strategies among police recruits in a high-stress training environment. The Journal of Social Psychology, 132, 717–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wall, T. D., and Clegg, C. W. (1981). A longitudinal study of group work redesign. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wall, T. D., Corbett, J. M., Martin, R., Clegg, C. W., and Jackson, P. R. (1990). Advanced manufacturing technology, work design and performance: A change study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 691–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Warr, P. (1987). Work, unemployment and mental health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Gail Hepburn
    • 1
  • Catherine A. Loughlin
    • 1
  • Julian Barling
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.School of BusinessQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations