High and Fluctuating Muscle Nerve Sympathetic Activity in the Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Pathogenetic Mechanism in the Development of Hypertension?
Muscle sympathetic activity was measured in 4 patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). All patients exhibited increased base line sympathetic activity when awake as well, as during sleep, compared to healthy control subjects. Increased sympathetic activity was also measured during central and obstructive apneic events during sleep. Immediately after arousal and initiation of ventilation, the sympathetic activity decreased to very low values. The increased sympathetic autonomic discharge seen in sleep apnea patients may be of pathophysiological importance for the hypertension and nocturnal ventricular arrhythmias reported to occur in SAS patients.
KeywordsCatheter Respiration Tungsten Catecholamine Propranolol
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Elam, M., Yao, T., Thoren, P., and Svensson, T.H., 1981, Hypercapnia and hypoxia: Chemoreceptor-mediated control of locus coeruleus neurons and splanchnic sympathetic nerves, Brain Res. 222: 373.Google Scholar
- Guilleminault, C., Winkle, R., Connolly, S., Melvin K., and Tilkian, A., 1984, Cyclical variation of the heart rate in sleep apnea syndrome. Mechanisms and usefulness of 24h electrocardiography as a screening technique, Lancet, 2: 126.Google Scholar
- Koles, A., Cadieux, R.J., Shaw, III L.C., Vela-Bueno, A., Bixles, E.O., Scheck, D.W., Loche, T.W., and Soldatos, C.R., 1984, Sleep apnea in a hypertensive population, Lancet 1: 1005.Google Scholar
- Koskenvua, M., Kaprio, J., Telakivi, T., Partinen, M., Heikkilä, K., and Sarna S., 1987, Snoring as a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and stroke in men, Brit. Med. J., 294: 16.Google Scholar
- Scharf, S.M., Brown, R., Tow, D.E., and Parisi, A.F., 1979, Cardiac effects of increased lung volume and decreased pleural pressure in man, J. Appl. Physiol. 47: 257.Google Scholar
- Scharf, Si, 1984, Influence of sleep state and breathing on cardiovascular function, in: “Sleep and breathing”, Saunders and Sullivan, eds., Marcel Dekker Inc.Google Scholar
- Sylvester, J.T., Scharf, S.M., Gilbert, R.D., 1979, Fitzgerald, R.S., and Traystman, R.J., Hypoxic and CO hypoxia in dogs: hemodynamics, carotid reflex and catecholamines, Am. J. Physiol. 236: 422.Google Scholar
- Tilkian, A.G., Guilleminault, C., Schroeder, J.S., Lehrman, K.C., Simmons, F.B., and Dement W.C., 1976, Hemodynamics in sleep-induced apnea, Ann. Intern. Med. 85: 714.Google Scholar