Advertisement

Abstract

The Centers for Disease Control first described the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1981 (CDC, 1981a,b), but cases have now been traced back to 1979 (Curran, 1983). Since that time it has spread rapidly both nationally and internationally, with the number of cases doubling every six months. The disease most often attacks healthy young adults and destroys components of their immune systems, which makes them susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers. At present, there is no treatment which will restore immunologic competency. The course of the disease is one of progressive deterioration and death, with a mortality rate of approximately 80% in two years (Dowdle, 1983). AIDS has been designated as the nation’s number one health priority by the Public Health Service (Brandt, 1983).

Keywords

Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Immune Deficiency Syndrome Lesbian Woman Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patient Homosexual Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrahams, R. B. (1976). Mutual helping: Styles of caregiving in a mutual aid program—The widowed service line. In G. Caplan and M. Killilea (Eds.), Support systems and mutual help. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  2. Bernstein, H. A. (1981). Survey of threats and assaults directed toward therapists. American Journal of Psychiatry 35, 4, 542–549.Google Scholar
  3. Bettelheim, B. (1982). Freud and man’s soul. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  4. Brandt, E. N. (1983). The Public Health Service’s number one priority. Public Health Reports, 98, 306–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Britton, C. B. (1984). Neurology of AIDS. In S. E. Nichols and D. G. Ostrow (Eds.), Psychiatric implications of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  6. Centers for Disease Control (1981a). Pneumocystis pneumonia-Los Angeles. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 30, 250–252.Google Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control (1981b). Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men New York and California. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 30, 305–308.Google Scholar
  8. Centers for Disease Control (1983). Update: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-United States. Morbidity an Mortality Weekly Reports, 32, 465–467.Google Scholar
  9. Coates, T. J., Temoshok, L., and Mandel, J. (1984). Psychosocial research is essential to understanding and treating AIDS. American Psychologist, 39, 11, 1309–1314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Curran, J. W. (1983). AIDS-Two years later. New England Journal of Medicine, 309, 609–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dilley, J. W. (1984). Treatment interventions and approaches to care of patients with AIDS. In S. E. Nichols and D. G. Ostrow (Eds.), Psychiatric implications of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  12. Dowdle, W. R. (1983). The epidemiology of AIDS. The Public Health Reports, 98, 308–312.Google Scholar
  13. Enlow, R. W. (1984). Epidemiology and immunology of AIDS. In S. E. Nichols and D. G. Ostrow (Eds.), Psychiatric implications of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  14. Feigenberg, L. (1980). Terminal care: Friendship contracts with dying cancer patients. New York, Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  15. Forstein, M. (1984). AIDS anxiety in the “worried well.” In S. E. Nichols and D. G. Ostrow (Eds.) Psychiatric implications of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  16. Gallo, R. C., Salahuddin, S. Z., Popovic, M., Shearer, G. M., Kaplan, M., Haynes, B. F., Palker, T. J., Redfield, R., Oleske, J., Safai, B., White, G., Foster, P., and Markham, P. D. (1984). Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science, 244, (4648), 500–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gonsiorek, J. C. (1982). The use of diagnostic concepts in working with gay and lesbian populations. Journal of Homosexuality 6, 3, 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Greer, S., Morris, T. E., and Pettingale, K. W. (1979). Psychological responses to breast cancer: Effect on outcome. Lancet, 2, 785–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hackett, T. P. (1974). Recognizing and treating abnormal grief. Hospital Physician, 1, 49–56.Google Scholar
  20. Hackett, T. P., and Cassem, N. H. (1979). Psychological reactions to a life-threatening illness. In H. Abram (Ed.), Psychological aspects of stress. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  21. Hollingsworth, C. E., and Pasnau, R. O. (1977). The family in mourning: A guide for health professionals. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  22. Horowitz, M. T. (1973). Stress response syndromes. New York: Jason Aranson.Google Scholar
  23. Jandt, F. E., and Dorsey, J. (1972). Coming out as a communicative process. In D. W. Cheeseboro (Ed.), Gayspeak. New York: Pilgrim.Google Scholar
  24. Joseph, J. G., Emmonds, C., Kessler, R. C., Wortman, C. B., O’Brien, K., Hocker, W. T., and Schaefer, C. (1984). Coping with the threat of AIDS: An approach to psychosocial assessment. American Psychologist, 39, 11, 1297–1302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kübler-Ross, E. (1969). On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  26. LeShan, L. (1969). Psychotherapy and the dying patient. In L. Pearson (Ed.), Death and dying: Current issues in the treatment of the dying person. Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve University.Google Scholar
  27. Levy, J. A., and Ziegler, J. L. (1983). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is an opportunistic infection and Kaposí s sarcoma results from secondary immune stimulation. Lancet, 1, 78–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lewis, C. S. (1963). A grief observed. New York: Seabury.Google Scholar
  29. Lewis, J. M. (1982). Dying with friends: Implications for the therapist. American Journal of Psychiatry 139, 3, 261–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lindemann, E. (1944). Symptomatology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry, 101, 2, 141–148.Google Scholar
  31. Lipp, M. R. (1977). Respectful treatment: The human side of medical care. Hagerstown, Md.: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  32. Malyon, A. K. (1982). Psychotherapeutic implications of internalized homophobia in gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 7, 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Martin, J. L., and Vance, C. S. (1984). Behavioral and psychological factors in AIDS: Methodological and substantive issues. American Psychologist, 39, 11, 1303–1308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Morin, S. F., and Batchelor, W. F. (1984). Responding to the psychological crisis of AIDS. Public Health Reports, 99, 4–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Morin, S. F., Charles, K. A., and Malyon, A. K. (1984). The psychological impact of AIDS on gay men. American Psychologist, 39, 11, 1288–1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Myers, M. F. (1982). Counseling the parents of young male homosexual patients. Journal of Homosexuality, 6, 3, 131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nichols, S. E. (1983). Psychiatric aspects of AIDS. Psychosomatics 24, 12, 1083–1089.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nichols, S. E., and Ostrow, D. G. (1984). Psychiatric implications of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  39. Parkes, C. M. (1964). The effects of bereavement on physical and mental health: A study of case records of widows. Medical Journal, 2, 274–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parkes, C. M. (1970). The first year of bereavement. Psychiatry 33, 444–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Parkes, C. M. (1971). Psychosocial transitions: A field for study. Social Science and Medicine, 5, 101–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pearson, L. (1969). Death and dying: Current issues in the treatment of the dying patient. Cleveland: Press of the Case Western Reserve University.Google Scholar
  43. Peck, M. S. (1979). The road less travelled: A new psychotherapy of love, traditional values, and spiritual growth. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  44. Rogentine, S. N., Boyd, S. C., Bunney, W. E., Doherty, J. P., Fox, B. H., Rosenblatt, J. E., and Van Kammen, D. P. (1979). Psychological factors in the prognosis of malignant melanoma: A prospective study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 647–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Saghir, M. T., and Robins, E. (1973). Male and female homosexuality. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  46. Schliefer, S. J., Keller, S. E., Camerino, M., Thornton, J. C., and Stein, M. (1983). Suppression of lymphocyte stimulation following bereavement. Journal of the American Medical Association, 250, 374–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shernoff, M. J. (1984). Family therapy for lesbian and gay clients. Social Work, 29, 4, 393–396.Google Scholar
  48. Siegel, R. L., and Hoefer, D. D. (1981). Bereavement counseling for gay individuals. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 35, 4, 517–525.Google Scholar
  49. Silverman, P. R. (1970). The widow as a caregiver in a program of preventive intervention with other widows. Mental Hygiene, 54 (4), 540–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Snider, W. D., Simpson, D. M., Nielsen, S., Gold, J. W. M., Metroka, C. E., and Posner, J. B. (1983). Neurological complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Analysis of 50 patients. Annuals of Neurology 14, 403–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stein, T. S., and Cohen, C. J. (1984). Psychotherapy with gay men and lesbians: An examination of homophobia, coming out, and identity. In E. S. Hetrick and T. S. Stein (Eds.), Psychotherapy with homosexuals. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  52. Thomas, A., and Silien, S. (1972). Racism and psychiatry. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  53. Tyhurst, J. S. (1951). Individual reactions to community disaster The natural history of psychiatric phenomena. American Journal of Psychiatry, 107, 764–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Tyhurst, J. S. (1958). The role of transition states including disasters in mental illness. In Symposium on preventive and social psychiatry. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  55. Wallace, J. (1978). Working with the preferred defense system of the recovering alcoholic. In S. Zimberg, J. Wallace, and S. B. Blume (Eds.), Practical approaches to alcoholism psychotherapy. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  56. Weisman, A. D. (1972). On dying and denying: A psychiatric study of terminality. New York: Behavioral Press.Google Scholar
  57. Weiss, R. S. (1976). Transition states and other stressful situations: Their nature and programs for their management. In G. Caplan and M. Killilea (Eds.), Support systems and mutual help. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart E. Nichols
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Mount Sinai School of MedicineCity University of New York: American Psychiatric Association Ad Hoc Committee on AIDSUSA
  2. 2.Beth Israel Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations