Advertisement

Class, Conflict, and Criminalization

  • Austin T. Turk
Part of the The Plenum Series in Crime and Justice book series (PSIC)

Abstract

At least since Merton’s (1938, 1957) analysis of the relationship between class structure and deviance rates, considerable attention has been given by social scientists to the ways in which structured inequalities generate both the behavioral and the definitional realities of deviance. The advent, or revival, of labeling theory (see Schur, 1971; Gove, 1975) has marked and contributed to greater sensitivity among researchers to the distinctions between observed and reported or imputed acts, between exploratory and career behavior, between behavioral and non-behavioral criteria of deviance, and between reactive and proactive modes of social control. Against the focus of anomie theory upon behavioral realities, definitional realities have been emphasized in labeling theory—at the cost of nearly losing the sense of class structure (i.e., of the association between structured variations in life chances and in behavior patterns) which is central to anomie theory.

Keywords

Class Structure Social Conflict Crime Control Marxian Theory Label Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bonger, Willem (1916). Criminality and Economic Conditions. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  2. Cain, Maureen (1974). “The main themes of Marx’ and Engels’ sociology of law.” British Journal of Law and Society 1 (Winter): 136–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chambliss, William J. (1975). “Toward a political economy of crime.” Theory and Society 2 (Summer): 149–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chambliss, William J. (1976). “Functional and conflict theories of crime: The heritage of Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx.” Pp. 1–28 in William J. Chambliss and Milton Mankoff (eds.), Whose Law, What Order? A Conflict Approach to Criminology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Collins, Randall (1975). Conflict Sociology: Toward an Explanatory Science. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  6. Cressey, Donald R. (1968). “Culture conflict, differential association, and normative conflict.” Pp. 43–54 in Marvin E. Wolfgang (ed.), Crime and Culture: Essays in Honor of Thorsten Sellin. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr. (1971). “Political intrusion and governmental confusion: The case of the National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.” The American Sociologist 6 (June): 59–62.Google Scholar
  8. Galliher, John F., and James L. McCartney (1973). “The influence of funding agencies on juvenile delinquency research.” Social Problems 21 (Summer): 77–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gove, Walter R., ed. (1975). The Labelling of Deviance: Evaluating a Perspective. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Greenberg David F. (1976). “On one-dimensional Marxist criminology.” Theory and Society 3 (Winter): 611–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hartjen, Clayton A. (1974). Crime and Criminalization. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  12. Hay, Douglas, Peter Linebaugh, John G. Rule, E. P. Thompson, and Cal Winslow (1976). Albion’s Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in Eighteenth Century England. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  13. Helmer, John (1975). Drugs and Minority Oppression. New York: Seabury Press.Google Scholar
  14. Lehmann, Timothy, and T. R. Young (1974). “From conflict theory to conflict methodology: An emerging paradigm for sociology.” Sociological Inquiry 44 (1): 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marzotto, Mary, Tony Platt, and Annikn Snare (1975). “A reply to Turk.” Crime and Social Justice 4 (Fall-Winter): 43–45.Google Scholar
  16. Matza, David (1969). Becoming Deviant. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  17. McLauchlan, Gregory (1975). “LEAA: A case study in the development of the social industrial complex.” Crime and Social Justice 4 (Fall-Winter): 15–23.Google Scholar
  18. Merton, Robert K. (1938). “Social structure and anomie.” American Sociological Review 3 (October): 672–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Merton, Robert K. (1957). Social Theory and Social Structure. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press. Pp. 131–194.Google Scholar
  20. Mills, C. Wright (1959). The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Pearce, Frank (1976). Crimes of the Powerful: Marxism, Crime and Deviance. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  22. Platt, Tony (1974). “Prospects for a radical criminology in the United States.” Crime and Social Justice 1 (Spring-Summer): 2–10.Google Scholar
  23. Quinney, Richard (1974). Critique of Legal Order: Crime Control in Capitalist Society. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  24. Quinney, Richard (1975). Criminology: Analysis and Critique of Crime in America. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  25. Reasons, Charles E. (ed.) (1974). The Criminologist: Crime and the Criminal. Pacific Palisades, California: Goodyear.Google Scholar
  26. Schur, Edwin M. (1971). Labeling Deviant Behavior. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  27. Sorokin, Pitirim (1956). Fads and Foibles in Modern Sociology and Related Sciences. Chicago: Henry Regnery.Google Scholar
  28. Taylor, Ian, Paul Walton, and Jock Young (1973). The New Criminology: For a Social Theory of Deviance. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Taylor, Ian, Paul Walton, and Jock Young (eds.) (1975). Critical Criminology. London: Rout-ledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  30. Thompson, E. P. (1976). Whigs and Hunters: The Origin of the Black Act. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  31. Turk, Austin T. (1969). Criminality and Legal Order. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  32. Turk, Austin T. (1972). Legal Sanctioning and Social Control. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, DHEW Pub. No. ( HSM ) 72–9130.Google Scholar
  33. Turk, Austin T. (1975). “Prospects and pitfalls for radical criminology: A critical response to Platt.” Crime and Social Justice 4 (Fall-Winter): 41–42.Google Scholar
  34. Turk, Austin T. (1976a). “Law as a weapon in social conflict.” Social Problems 23 (February): 276–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Turk, Austin T. (1976b). “Law, conflict, and order: from theorizing toward theories.” Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 13 (August): 282–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vold, George (1958). Theoretical Criminology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Weber, Max (1968). Economy and Society. New York: Bedminster Press.Google Scholar
  38. Werkentin, Falco, Michael Hofferbert, and Michael Baurmann (1974). “Criminology as police science or: How old is the new criminology?” Crime and Social Justice 2 (Fall-Winter): 2441.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Austin T. Turk

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations