Advertisement

Introduction to Delinquency and Community: Creating Opportunity and Controls

  • Alden D. Miller
  • Lloyd E. Ohlin
Part of the The Plenum Series in Crime and Justice book series (PSIC)

Abstract

Delinquency is a community problem. In the final analysis the means for its prevention and control must be built into the fabric of community life. This can happen only if the community accepts its share of responsibility for having generated and perpetuated paths of socialization that lead to sporadic criminal episodes for some youth and careers in crime for others. Studies of the causes of crime point to many individual and social pathologies that may find expression in deviant and criminal behavior. In a competent community, however, the opportunities and motivations for crime are controlled by the way its institutions are organized to respond to such threats to public safety. There is a willingness to experiment and improve the responsiveness of individual and family services, religious organizations, neighborhood groups, schools, recreational agencies, housing associations, employment markets, and juvenile justice agencies. The result is a communal context that is sensitive to the problems of growing up and possessed of the institutional capacity to respond appropriately.

Keywords

Delinquent Conduct Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Court Training School Criminal Career 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Eleanor E. Maccoby, Joseph P. Johnson, and Russell M. Church, “Community Integration and the Social Control of Juvenile Delinquency,” Journal of Social Issues 14 (June 1958), 38–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    For a brief summary of the research data, see John E. Conklin, Criminology ( New York: Macmillan, 1981 ), 116–118.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    For a discussion of the relevant social science theory, see Chapter 5.Google Scholar
  4. Robert Pickett, House of Refuge (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1969); Anthony Platt, The Child Savers (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969); Robert Bremner et al.,eds. Children and Youth in America,3 volumes (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970–1974); Joseph Hawes, Children in Urban Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971); Jack Holl, Juvenile Reform in the Progressive Era (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1971); Robert Mennel, Thorns and Thistles (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1973); Steven Schlossman, Love and the American Delinquent (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schlossman,1977.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mennel, 1973.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Platt,1969.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    August Aichorn, Wayward Youth ( New York: Viking Press, 1939 ).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fritz Redl and David Winemen, Children Who Hate ( New York: Free Press, 1951 ).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lloyd W. McCorkle, “Group Therapy in the Treatment of Offenders,” Federal Probation 16 (1952), 28–32. See also H. Ashley Weeks, Youthful Offenders at High fields ( Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1958 ).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck, 500 Criminal Careers (New York: Knopf, 1930); One Thousand Juvenile Delinquents (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1934); Five Hundred Delinquent Women (New York: Knopf, 1934); Later Criminal Careers (New York: Commonwealth Fund, 1937); Criminal Careers in Retrospect (New York: Commonwealth Fund, 1943); After-Conduct of Discharged Offenders ( New York: Macmillan, 1945 ).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Allen F. Breed, “California Youth Authority Forestry Camp Program,” Federal Probation 17 (1953), 3743.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lloyd E. Ohlin and William Lawrence, “Social Interaction Among Clients as a Treatment Problem,” Social Work (April 1959). Howard W. Polsky, Cottage Six-The Social System of Delinquent Boys in Treatment (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1962); David Street, Robert D. Vinter, and Charles Perrow, Organization for Treatment (New York: Free Press, 1966 ). For a more recent statement, see Clemens Bartollas, Stuart J. Miller, and Simon Dinitz, Juvenile Victimization: The Institutional Paradox ( New York: John Wiley, 1976 ).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society ( Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1967 ), 171.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Douglas Lipton, Robert Martinson, and Judith Wilks, The Effectiveness of Correctional Treatment: A Survey of Treatment Evaluation Studies ( New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    President’s Commission, 1967, see recommendations and discussion in the chapter on juvenile delinquency, pp. 55–89.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    President’s Commission, 1967, see table of recommendations, pp. 293–310.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maxwell Jones, Social Psychiatry: A Study of Therapeutic Communities (London: Tavistock, 1952); Social Psychiatry in Practice: The Idea of the Therapeutic Community (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1968); Beyond the Therapeutic Community: Social Learning and Social Psychiatry ( New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1968 ).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barry Krisberg and Ira Schwartz, “Rethinking Juvenile Justice,” Crime and Delinquency 29 (July 1983), 333–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. P. Breckinridge and Edith Abbort, The Delinquent Child and the Home (New York: Ayer, 1912/1970).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Robert E. Park, Human Communities: The City and Human Ecology ( New York: Free Press, 1952 ).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Solomon Kobrin, “The Chicago Area Project: A Twenty-Five Year Assessment,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 322 (March 1959). A more detailed historical analysis is presented by Steven Schlossman and Michael Sedlak, “The Chicago Area Project Revisited,” Crime and Delinquency 29 (July 1983), pp. 398–462.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saul D. Alinsky, Reveille for Radicals (New York: Vintage Books, 1969). See also S. D. Minsky, Community Analysis and Organization,“ American Journal of Sociology (May 1941).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mobilization for Youth, Inc., A Proposal for the Prevention and Control of Delinquency by Expanding Opportunities (New York: Mobilization for Youth, Inc., 1961 ).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Richard A. Cloward and Lloyd E. Ohlin, Delinquency and Opportunity ( New York: Free Press, 1960 ).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Peter Marris and Martin Rein, Dilemmas of Social Reform: Poverty and Community Action in the United Stales (New York: Atherton Press, 1967); John Knapp, Scouting the War on Poverty: Social Reform Policies in the Kennedy Administration (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1971); Daniel P. Moynihan, Maximum Feasible Misunderstanding: Community Action in the War on Poverty (New York: Free Press, 1970); Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., A Thousand Days ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977 ).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    President’s Commission, 1967.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Albert K. Cohen, George Cole, and Robert Bailey, eds., Prison Violence ( Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1976 ).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Robert Mennel, “Attitudes and Policies Toward Juvenile Delinquency in the United States: A Historiographical Review,” in Michael Tonry and Norval Morris, eds., Crime and Justice: An Annual Review 4 ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983 ), 91–224.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Valdimer O. Key, Politics Parties, and Pressure Groups ( New York: Knopf, 1964 ).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Neil J. Smelser, Theory of Collective Behavior (New York: Free Press, 1963 ); Ralph H. Turner and Lewis M. Killian, Collective Behavior ( Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972 ).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Barry C. Feld, Neutralizing Inmate Violence: Juvenile Offenders in Institutions (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1977); “Legislative Policies Toward the Serious Juvenile Offender: On the Virtues of Automatic Adulthood,” Crime and Delinquency (October 1981).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Craig A. McEwen, Designing Correctional Organizations for Youths: Dilemmas of Subcultural Development ( Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1977 ).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Robert B. Coates, Alden D. Miller, and Lloyd E. Ohlin, Diversity in a Youth Correctional System: Handling Delinquents in Massachusetts ( Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1977 ).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alden D. Miller, Lloyd E. Ohlin, and Robert B. Coates, A Theory of Social Reform: Correctional Change Processes in Two States ( Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1977 ).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ibid., p. xvii.Google Scholar
  37. Cloward, R.A. Ohlin, L.E. (1960). Delinquency and Opportunity. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  38. Plato. “Euthephro.” (1956). In F.J. Church (Trans. & ed.), Plato: Euthephro. Apology. Crito. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs Merrill.Google Scholar
  39. Plato. Plato: Protagoras (Ed. G. Vlatos). (1956). Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  40. Plato. “Laws” (Trans. B. Jowett). In The Dialogues of Plato (1937). New York: Random House.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alden D. Miller
  • Lloyd E. Ohlin

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations