Status Variation in Antebellum Alexandria

An Archaeological Study of Ceramic Tableware
  • Steven Judd Shephard

Abstract

Studies of socioeconomic status using archaeological materials have proliferated in recent years. Although certain material correlates of social group membership have been identified, the patterning in the data has often proved to be fairly subtle.

Keywords

Sugar Clay Filtration Covariance Mold 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbitt-Outlaw, Merry, Bogley, Beverly A., and Outlaw, Alain C., 1977, Rich Man, Poor Man: Status Definition in Two 17th Century Ceramic Assemblages from Kingsmill, paper presented at the 10th Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, Richard N., 1975, Energy and Structure: A Theory of Social Power, University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  3. Alexandria Censuses, 1791, 1794–1797, 1799, 1800, 1808, 1810, 1816, 1830, Lloyd House Library, Alexandria.Google Scholar
  4. Alexandria City Directories, 1834, 1860, 1876, 1888, Lloyd House Library, Alexandria.Google Scholar
  5. Alexandria Deed Books, Volumes I, M, U-2, 13, 14, 18, Alexandria Courthouse.Google Scholar
  6. Alexandria Tax Records, 1787–1790, 1796–1798, 1800–1855, Lloyd House Library, Alexandria, 1856–1900, Virginia State Library, Richmond.Google Scholar
  7. Alexandria Will Books, Volumes 2, C, Alexandria Courthouse.Google Scholar
  8. Anderson, Nels, 1971, The Industrial Urban Community: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, Vernon G., 1980, Archaeological visability of Afro-American Culture: An Example from Black Lucy’s Garden, Andover, Massachusetts, in: Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America, Afro-American and Asian American Culture History (R. L. Schuyler, ed.), Baywood Publishing, New York, pp. 29–37.Google Scholar
  10. Beidleman, D. Katharine, 1979, The 500-Block King Street Excavation: Alexandria Archaeology’s First “Test Square,” paper presented at the 9th Annual Middle Atlantic Archaeology Conference, Rehobeth Beach, Delaware.Google Scholar
  11. Beidleman, D. Katherine, Ax-1 Field Reports, on file, Alexandria Urban Archaeology Program, Alexandria.Google Scholar
  12. Buikstra, Jane E., 1976, Hopewell in the Lower Illinois Valley: A Regional Study of Human Biological Variability and Prehistoric Mortuary Behavior, Northwestern Archaeological Program Scientific Papers 2.Google Scholar
  13. Burk, Marguerite, 1968, Consumption Economics: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Chappie, E. D., and Coon, Carlton S., 1942, Principles of Anthropology. Henry Holt, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Coleman, Richard P., 1961, The Significance of Social Stratification in Selling, in: Marketing, A Maturing Discipline (M. L. Bell, ed.), American Marketing Association, Chicago, pp. 171–184.Google Scholar
  16. Cressey, Pamela J., and Stephens, John F., 1982, The City-Site Approach to Urban Archaeology in Alexandria, Virginia, in: Archaeology in Urban America: A Search for Pattern and Process (R. S. Dickens, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 40–61.Google Scholar
  17. Cressey, Pamela J., Stephens, John F., Shephard, Steven J., and Magid, Barbara H., 1982, The Core/Periphery Relationship and the Archaeological Record in Alexandria, Virginia, in: Archaeology in Urban America: A Search for Pattern and Process (R. S. Dickens, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 142–173.Google Scholar
  18. Deagan, Kathleen A., 1974, Sex Status and Role in the Mestizaje of Spanish Colonial Florida, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  19. De Cunzo, Lu Ann, 1982, Economics and Ethnicity, an Archaeological Perspective on Nineteenth Century Paterson, New Jersey, paper presented at the 15th Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  20. Deetz, James, 1960, An Archaeological Approach to Kinship Change in Eighteenth Century Ankara Culture, Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  21. Deetz, James, 1972, Ceramic from Plymouth, 1620–1835: The Archaeological Evidence, in: Ceramics in America (I. Quimby, ed.), University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, pp. 15–40.Google Scholar
  22. Deetz, James, 1977, In Small Things Forgotten, Anchor Press/Doubleday, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Drucker, Lesley M., 1981, Socioeconomic Patterning at an Undocumented Late 18th Century Lowcountry Site: Spiers Landing, Historical Archaeology 15(2):58–68.Google Scholar
  24. Engel, James F., Kollat, David T., and Blackwell, Roger D., 1968, Consumer behavior, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Fairbanks, Charles H., 1972, The Kingsley Slave Cabins in Duval County, Florida, 1968, The Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers 7:62–93.Google Scholar
  26. Federal Census of Population, 1790–1900 (dicennial), National Archives, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  27. Friedlander, Amy, Holt, Cheryl A., Klein, Terry H., and LeeDecker, Charles H., 1985, From House to Outhouse: A Study of 19th Century Household in Wilmington, Delaware, paper presented at the 18th Annual Meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Boston.Google Scholar
  28. Gill, Bruce G., 1976, Ceramics in Philadelphia, 1780–1800: An Indicator of Socioeconomic Status in a Major City of the New Nation, M.A. thesis, George Washington University, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  29. Godden, Geoffrey, A., 1966, An Illustrated Encyclopedia of British Pottery and Porcelain, Crown, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Goheen, Peter G., 1970, Victorian Toronto 1850–1900: Pattern and Process of Growth, Department of Geography, Research Paper No. 127, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  31. Henley, Laura A., Palkovich, Anne M., and Haas, Jonathan, 1980, The Other Side of Alexandria: Archaeology in an Enduring Black Neighborhood, paper presented at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  32. Herman, Lynne L., Sands, John O., and Schecter, Daniel, 1975, Ceramics in St. Mary’s County, Maryland during the 1840’s: A Socioeconomic Study, Conference on Historical Site Archaeology Papers 8:52–93.Google Scholar
  33. Hershberg, Theodore, and Dockhorn, Robert, 1976, Occupational Classification, The Philadelphia Social History Project, Historical Methods Newletter 9(2,3):59–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hill, James N., 1966, A Prehistoric Community in Eastern Arizona, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 22(1)9–30.Google Scholar
  35. Johnson, Gregory A., 1978, Information Sources and the Development of Decision-Making Organizations, in: Social Archaeology: Beyond Subsistence and Dating (C. L. Redman, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 87–112.Google Scholar
  36. Kahl, Joseph, 1953, The American Class Structure, Rinehart, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Kingsbury, Pamela, 1974, Staffordshire Transfer-Printed Ware from the Thayer Collection, Antiques 105:169–173.Google Scholar
  38. Lasswell, Thomas E., 1965, Class and Stratum: An Introduction to Concepts and Research, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  39. Levy, Michael J., Jr., 1952, The Structure of Society, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  40. Levy, Sidney J., 1966, Social Class and Consumer behavior, in: On Knowing the Consumer (J. W. Newman, ed.), Wiley, New York, pp. 48–59.Google Scholar
  41. Longacre, William A., 1964, Archaeology as Anthropology: A Case Study, Science 144:1454–1455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Magid, Barbara H., 1980, unpublished artifact analysis notes and charts for AX-1, Features 6 and 7, and AX-8, Feature 5, on file, Alexandria Urban Archaeology Program, Alexandria.Google Scholar
  43. Markin, Rom J., Jr., 1974, Consumer Behavior: A Cognitive Orientation, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Martineau, Pierre D., 1958, Social Classes and Spending behavior, Journal of Marketing 23:121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Martineau, Pierre D., 1961, Social Class and Its Very Close Relationship to the Individual’s Buying behavior, in: Marketing, a Maturing Discipline (M. L. Bell, ed.), American Marketing, Chicago, pp. 185–192.Google Scholar
  46. McKearin, George S., and McKearin, Helen, 1977, American Glass, Crown Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Miller, George L., 1980, Classification and Economic Scaling of 19th Century Ceramics, Historical Archaeology 14(1)1–40.Google Scholar
  48. Miller, J. Jefferson, and Lyle M. Stone, 1970, Eighteenth-Century Ceramics from Fort Michilimackinac, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  49. Miller, James G., 1978, Living Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Otto, John S., 1975, Status Differences and the Archaeological Record: A Comparison of Planter, Overseer, and Slave Sites from Cannon’s Point Plantation (1794–1861), Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  51. Otto, John S., 1977, Artifacts and Status Differences: A Comparison from Planter, Overseer, and Slave Sites on an Antebellum Plantation, in: Research Strategies in Historical Archaeology (S. South, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 91–118.Google Scholar
  52. Otto, John S., 1980, Race and Class on Antebellum Plantations, in: Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America (R. L. Schuyler, ed.), Baywood Publishing, New York, pp. 3–13.Google Scholar
  53. Pareto, Vilfredo, 1916 (1963), A Treatise on General Sociology, Dover Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Parsons, Talcott, 1953, A Revised Analytical Approach to the Theory of Social Stratification, in: Class, Status and Power (R. Bendix and S. M. Lipset, ed.), Free Press, Glencoe, Illinois, pp. 92–128.Google Scholar
  55. Parsons, Talcott, and Smelser, Neil J., 1965, Economy and Society, Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
  56. Pebbles, Christopher S., and Kus, Susan M., 1977, Some Archaeological Correlates of Ranked Societies, American Antiquity 42(3)421–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pirie, Margaret C., 1960, Marketing and Social Classes: An Anthropologist’s View, Management Review 49(9)45–48.Google Scholar
  58. Schiffer, Michael B., Downing, Theordore E., and McCarthy, Michael, 1981, Waste Not, Want Not: An Ethnoarchaeological Study of Reuse in Tucson, Arizona, in: Modern Material Culture: The Archaeology of Us (R. A. Gould and M. B. Schiffer, eds.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Shephard, Steven J., 1983, The Spanish Criollo Majority in Colonial St. Augustine, in: Spanish St. Augustine: The Archaeology of A Colonial Creole Community (K. A. Deagan, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 65–97.Google Scholar
  60. Shephard, Steven J., 1985, An Archaeological Study of Socioeconomic Stratification Status Change in Nineteenth-Century Alexandria, Virginia, Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University—Carbondale, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  61. Smelser, Neil J., 1963, The Sociology of Economic Life, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  62. South, Stanley, 1972, Evolution and Horizon as Revealed in Ceramic Analysis in Historical Archaeology, The Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers, 1971 6(2)71–106.Google Scholar
  63. Stephens, John F., 1981a, Geographical Methods in Urban Preservation Planning, Alexandria Papers in Urban Archaeology, Planning Series No. 2., Alexandria Urban Archaeology Program, Alexandria.Google Scholar
  64. Stephens, John F., 1981b. Historical Methods in Urban Preservation Planning, Alexandria Papers in Urban Archaeology, Planning Series No. 3., Alexandria Urban Archaeology Program, Alexandria.Google Scholar
  65. Stephens, John F., 1981c, Socioeconomic Ranking Scales for Alexandria, Virginia, 1790, 1810, 1830, 1850, 1870, 1890, 1910, on file at the Alexandria Urban Archaeology Program, Alexandria.Google Scholar
  66. Stone, G. W., Little, II, Glenn, and Israel, Stephen, 1972, Ceramics from the John Hicks Site, 1723–1743: The Material Culture, in Ceramics in America (I. Quimby, ed.), University Press of Virgnia, Richmond, pp. 75–102.Google Scholar
  67. Swain, Perry, 1983, unpublished Ceramic Analysis Notes and Charts for AX-1, Features 6 and 7, and AX-8, Feature 5, on file, Alexandria Urban Archaeology Program, Alexandria.Google Scholar
  68. Terrie, Philip G., 1979, A Social History of the 500 Block in Alexandria, Virginia, on file, Alexandria Urban Archaeology Program, Alexandria.Google Scholar
  69. Tocqueville, Alexis de, 1831 (1959), Journey to America, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  70. Veblen, Thorstein, 1899 (1953), The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions, Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  71. Vogt, E. Z., 1956, An Appraisal of “Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the New World,” in: Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the New World (G. R. Wiley, ed.), Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology No. 23, New York, pp. 173–182.Google Scholar
  72. Warner, Lloyd W., and Lunt, Paul, 1950, The Social Life of a Modern Community, Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  73. Warner, Lloyd W., Meeker, Marchia, and Eells, Kenneth, 1949, Social Class in America, Science Research Associates, Chicago.Google Scholar
  74. White, Leslie A., 1949, The Science of Culture, Grover Press, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Wobst, Martin, H., 1977, Stylist Behavior and Information Exchange, Anthropological Papers of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, No. 61, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  76. Zimmerman, Carle C., 1936, Consumption and Standards of Living, Van Nostrand, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Judd Shephard
    • 1
  1. 1.Alexandria ArchaeologyCity Hall, AlexandriaUSA

Personalised recommendations