Cognitive, Behavioral, and Psychodynamic Therapies

Converging or Diverging Pathways to Change?
  • Hal Arkowitz
  • Mo Therese Hannah


Although the origins of cognitive therapy can be traced back in the history of philosophy and psychology (see Ellis, Chapter 1, this volume), it is still a relatively new arrival on the psychotherapy scene. Nonetheless, there already exists some very promising data for its effectiveness, particularly in the treatment of depression (e.g., Beckham & Watkins, Chapter 4, this volume; Elkin, Shea, Watkins, & Collins, 1986; Hollon & Beck, 1986). The recent proliferation of books, articles, and conferences on cognitive therapy, along with its inclusion in the NIMH Collaborative Study on Depression (Elkin, Parloff, Hadley, & Autry, 1985) point to the wide and rapidly growing acceptance of this approach. Given this, it seems particularly timely to consider the relationship between cognitive therapy and other major forms of psychotherapy. In this chapter, we will compare cognitive therapy with behavioral and psycho-dynamic therapies in an attempt to determine commonalities and differences among them. * In addition, we will present a formulation of change in psychotherapy based on factors that we believe are present in all three of these therapies. The argument will be advanced that the favorable outcome data for cognitive therapy may not be due to any particularly unique or novel elements but may instead be due to a more efficient and explicit use of factors that are present in these other forms of psychotherapies as well.


Behavior Therapy Cognitive Therapy Therapeutic Relationship Homework Assignment Therapeutic Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, F. (1963). The dynamics of psychotherapy in light of learning theory. American Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 440–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, F., and French, T. M. (1946). Psychoanalytic therapy. New York: Ronald.Google Scholar
  3. Arkowitz, H. (1984). Historical perspective on the integration of psychoanalytic and behavioral therapy. In H. Arkowitz and S. Messer (Eds.), Psychoanalytic therapy and behavior therapy: Is integration possible? (pp. 1–31 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arkowitz, H., and Messer, S. M. (Eds.). (1984). Psychoanalytic therapy and behavior therapy: Is integration possible? New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  9. Beck, A. T. (1985). Cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, psychoanalysis, and pharmacotherapy: A cognitive continuum. In M. M. Mahoney and A. Freeman (Eds.), Cognition and psychotherapy (pp. 325–347 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., and Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  11. Beck, A. T., Emery, G., and Greenberg, R. (1985). Anxiety and phobias: A cognitive approach. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Beidel, D. C., and Turner, S. M. (1986). A critique of the theoretical bases of cognitive-behavioral theories and therapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 6, 177–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blaney, P. H. (1986). Affect and memory: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 229–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36, 129–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brady, J. P. et al. (1980). Some views on effective principles of psychotherapy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 271–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, A. R. (1962). An experiment on small rewards for discrepant compliance and attitude change. In J. W. Brehm and A. R. Cohen (Eds.), Explorations in cognitive dissonance (pp. 97–104 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Cooper, J., and Axsom, D. (1982). Effect justification in psychotherapy. In G. Weary and H. T. Mirels (Eds.), Integrations of clinical and social psychology (pp. 214–230 ). New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  18. Coyne, J. C., and Gotlib, I. H. (1983). The role of cognition in depression: A critical appraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 472–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DeRubeis, R. J., Hollon, S. D., Evans, M. D., and Bemis, K. M. (1982). Can psychotherapies for depression be discriminated? A systematic investigation of cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 744–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dollard, J., and Miller, N. E. (1950). Personality and psychotherapy. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  21. Elkin, I., Parloff, M. J., Hadley, S. W., and Autry, J. H. (1985). NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program: Background and research plan. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 305–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elkin, I., Shea, T., Watkins, J, and Collins, J. ( 1986, May). NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program: Comparative treatment outcome findings. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  23. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.Google Scholar
  24. Endicott, J. and Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.Google Scholar
  26. Festinger, L. (1964). Conflict, decision, and dissonance. Stanford CA.: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Festinger, L., and Carlsmith, M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Frank, J. D. (1961). Persuasion and healing. New York: Schocken.Google Scholar
  29. French; T. M. (1933). Interrelations between psychoanalysis and the experimental work of Pavlov. American Journal of Psychiatry, 89, 1165–1203.Google Scholar
  30. Goldfried, M. R. (1980). Toward the delineation of therapeutic change principles. American Psychologist, 35, 991–999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goldfried, M. R. (1982a). On the history of therapeutic integration. Behavior Therapy, 13, 572–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goldfried, M. R. (1982b). Resistance and clinical behavior therapy. In P. L. Wachtel (Ed.), Resistance: Psychodynamic and behavioral approaches (pp. 95–113 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  33. Goldfried, M. R. (Ed.). (1982c). Converging themes in psychotherapy: Trends in psychodynamic, humanistic, and behavioral practice. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Goldfried, M. R., and Davison, G. C. (1976). Clinical behavior therapy. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  35. Goldfried, M. R., and Newman, C. (1986). Psychotherapy integration: An historical perspective. In J. Norcross (Ed.), Handbook of eclectic psychotherapy (pp. 25–61 ). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  36. Hollon, S. D., and Beck, A. T. (1986). Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies. In S. L. Garfield and A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change ( 3rd ed.; pp. 443–482 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  37. Jacobs, W. J., and Nadel, L. (1985). Stress-induced recovery of fears and phobias. Psychological Review, 92, 512–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kazdin, A. E. (1978). History of behavior modification. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  39. Kazdin, A. E. (1979). Nonspecific treatment factors in psychotherapy outcome research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 846–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kelly, G. A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  41. Kiesler, D. J. (1966). Some myths of psychotherapy research and the search for a paradigm. In A. P. Goldstein and N. Stein (Eds.), Prescriptive psychotherapies (pp. 102–126 ). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  42. Kopel, S., and Arkowitz, H. (1975). The role of attribution and self-perception in behavior modification. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 92, 175–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Koss, M. P., and Butcher, J. N. (1986). Research on brief psychotherapy. In S. L. Garfied and A. E. Bergin, (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change ( 3rd ed; pp. 627–670 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Lambert, M. J., Shapiro, D. A., and Bergin, A. E. (1986). The effectiveness of psychotherapy. In S. L. Garfield and A. E. Bergin (Eds), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change ( 3rd ed.; pp. 157–212 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Lewinsohn, P. M. (1974). A behavioral approach to depression. In R. J. Friedman and M. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  46. Lazarus, A. A. (1981). The practice of multimodal therapy. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  47. Lewinsohn, P. M., and Arconad, M. (1981). Behavioral treatment of depression: A social learning approach. In J. F. Clarkin and H. I. Glazer (Eds.), Depression: Behavioral and directive intervention strategies (pp. 33–67 ). New York: Garland Press.Google Scholar
  48. Lewinsohn, P. M., Steinmetz, J. L., Larson, D. W., and Franklin, J (1981). Depression-related cognitions: Antecedents or consequence? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 213–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. London, P. (1964). The modes and morals of psychotherapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  50. London, P. (1972). The end of ideology in behavior modification. American Psychologist, 27, 913–920.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. London, P. (1986). The modes and morals of psychotherapy ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  52. Luborsky, L. (1984). Principles of psychoanalytic therapy: A manual for supportive-expressive treatment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  53. Luborsky, L., Singer, B., and Luborsky, L. (1975). Comparative studies of psychotherapies: Is it true that everybody has won and all must have prizes? Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 995–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Luborsky, L., Woody, G., LeIlan, A. T., O’Brien, C. P., and Rosenzweig, J. (1982). Can independent judges recognize different psychotherapies? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 49–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mahoney, M. (1974). Cognition and behavior modification. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  56. Mahoney, M. J. (1977). On the continuing resistance to thoughtful therapy. Behavior Therapy, 8, 673–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Malan, D. H. (1979). Individual psychotherapy and the science of psychodynamics. London: Butterworth.Google Scholar
  58. Mann, J. (1973). Time-limited psychotherapy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive behavior modification: An integrated approach. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  60. Messer, S. B., and Winokur, M. (1980). Some limits to the integration of psychoanalytic and behavior therapy. American Psychologist, 35, 818–827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Messer, S. B., and Winokur, M. (1984). Ways of knowing and visions of reality in psychoanalytic therapy and behavior therapy. In H. Arkowitz and S. B. Messer (Eds.), Psychoanalytic therapy and behavior therapy: Is integration possible? (pp. 63–100 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Messer, S. B., and Winokur, M. (1986). Eclecticism and the shifting visions of reality in three systems of psychotherapy. International Journal of Ecclectic Psychotherapy, 5, 115–124.Google Scholar
  63. Morris, R. J., and Magrath, K. H. (1983). The therapeutic relationship in behavior therapy. In M. J. Lambert (Ed.), Psychotherapy and patient relationships (pp. 154–188 ). Homewood, IL: Dorsey-Jones Irwin.Google Scholar
  64. Nathan, P. E. (1981). Symptomatic diagnosis and behavioral assessment: A synthesis. In D. Barlow (Ed.), Behavioral assessment of adult disorders (pp. 1–11 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  65. Nelson, R. O., and Barlow, D. H. (1981). Behavioral assessment: Basic strategies and initial procedures. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Behavioral assessment of adult disorders (pp. 13–44 ). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  66. O’Leary, K. D., and Wilson, G. T. (1987). Behavior therapy: Applications and outcome ( 2nd Ed. ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  67. Prochaska, J., and DiClemente, C. C. (1986). The transtheoretical approach. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Handbook of eclectic psychotherapy (pp. 163–200 ). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  68. Robins, L. N., Heizer, J. E., Croughan, J.. and Ratcliff, K. S. (1981). National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 381–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rosenzweig, S. (1936). Some implicit common factors in diverse methods in psychotherapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 412–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Schwartz, R. M. (1982). Cognitive-behavior modification: A conceptual review. Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 267–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shoham-Salomon, V., and Rosenthal, R. (1987). Paradoxical interventions: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 22–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sifneos, P. (1979). Short-term dynamic psychotherapy: Evaluation and technique. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  74. Smith, M. L., Glass, G. V., and Miller, T. I. (1980). The benefits of psychotherapy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Steuer, J. L., Mintz, J., Hammen, C. L., Hill, M. A., Jarvik, L. F., McCarley, T., Motoike, P., and Rosen, R. (1984). Cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic group psychotherapy in the treatment of geriatric depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 180–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Strupp, H. H., and Binder, J. (1984). Psychotherapy in a new key. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  77. Tobias, B. A. (1988). Mood-dependent recall: A review. Unpublished manuscript, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.Google Scholar
  78. Wachtel, P. L. (1977). Psychoanalysis and behavior therapy: Toward an integration. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  79. Wachtel, P. L. (1987). Action and insight. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  80. Weiss, R. L. (1980). Strategic behavioral marital therapy. In J. P. Vincent (Ed.), Advances in family intervention, assessment, and theory (Vol. 1, pp. 229–271 ). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  81. Weiss, R. L., Hops, H., and Patterson, G. R. (1973). A framework for conceptualizing marital conflict, a technology for altering it, same data for evaluating it. In F. W. Clark and L. A. Hammerlynck (Eds.), Proceedings of the fourth Banff international conference on behavior modification (pp. 309–342 ). Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  82. Wicklund, R. A., and Brehm, J. W. (Eds.) (1976). Perspectives on cognitive dissonance. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  83. Wolpe, J. 1958 ). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Wolpe, J. (1973). The practice of behavior therapy. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  85. Worchel, S., Cooper, J., and Goethals, G. (1988). Understanding social psychology ( 4th ed. ). Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hal Arkowitz
    • 1
  • Mo Therese Hannah
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations