Advertisement

Process and Outcome in Cognitive Therapy

  • E. Edward Beckham
  • John T. Watkins

Abstract

In recent decades, the efficacy of psychotherapy and the process by which psychotherapy works have been increasingly scrutinized. Outcome studies have become more specific with regard to the disorder treated and the types of treatments used. With the manualization of cognitive therapy for depression (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979), it has become one of the most widely researched of the psychotherapies. This chapter will describe the current status of process and outcome research in cognitive therapy. There will first be a brief review of the current state of outcome research for psychotherapy in general followed by a more detailed examination of outcome research in cognitive therapy. We will then examine the process research pertaining to cognitive therapy. Reviews of outcome studies will focus most heavily on clinically diagnosed disorders with less emphasis on analog studies.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abikoff, H., Gittelman, R. (1985). Hyperactive children treated with stimulants: Is cognitive training a useful adjunct? Archives of general Psychiatry, 42, 953–961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 102–109.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( 3rd ed. ). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Amkoff, D. B. (1986). A comparison of the coping and restructuring components of cognitive restructuring. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 147–158.Google Scholar
  5. Barkley, R. A., Copeland, A. P., Sivage, C. (1980). A self-control classroom for hyperactive children. Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 75–89.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The Hopelessness Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 861–865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression: A treatment manual. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. Beck, A. T., Emery, G., Greenberg, R. L. (1985). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  10. Beck, A. T., Holton, S. D., Young, J. E., Bedrosian, R. C., Budenz, D. (1985). Treatment of depression with cognitive therapy and amitriptyline. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 142–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beckham, E. E., Adams, R. L. (1984). Coping behavior in depression: Report on a new scale. Behavior Research and Therapy, 22, 71–75.Google Scholar
  12. Beckham, E. E., Boyer, J. L., Cook, J. B., Leber, W. R., Watkins, J. T. (1984, June). Development of instrumentation for process research in cognitive therapy of depression. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada.Google Scholar
  13. Beckham, E. E., Leber, W. R., Watkins, J. T., Boyer, J. L., Cook, J. B. (1986). Development of an instrument to measure Beck’s cognitive triad: The Cognitive Triad Inventory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 566–567.Google Scholar
  14. Berman, J. S., Miller, C., Massman, P. J. (1985). Cognitive therapy versus systematic desensitization: Is one treatment superior? Psychological Bulletin, 97, 451–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Biran, M., Wilson, G. T. (1981). Treatment of phobic disorders using cognitive and exposure methods: A self-efficacy analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 886–899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Blackburn, I. M., Bishop, S., Glen, A. I. M., Whalley, L. J., Christie, J. E. (1981). The efficacy of cognitive therapy in depression: A treatment trial using cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy, each alone and in combination. British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 181–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Blackburn, I. M., Eunson, K. M., Bishop, S. (1986). A two-year naturalistic followup of depressed patients treated with cognitive therapy, pharmacotherapy and a combination of both. Journal of Affective Disorders, 10, 67–75.Google Scholar
  18. Boyer, J. L., Beckham, E. E., Buck, P. ( 1987, June). A cognitive behavioral treatment of impulse control disorders: A naturalistic outcome study and follow-up. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Ulm, Germany.Google Scholar
  19. Brooks, G. R., Richardson, F. C. (1980). Emotional skills training: A treatment program for duodenal ulcer. Behavior Therapy, 11, 198–207.Google Scholar
  20. Brown, R. T., Wynne, M. E., Medenis, R. (1985). Methylphenidate and cognitive therapy: A comparison of treatment approaches in hyperactive boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 69–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown, R. T., Wynne, M. E., Borden, K. A., Clingerman, S. R., Geniesse, R., Spunt, A. L. (1986). Methylphenidate and cognitive therapy in children with attention deficit disorder: A double-blind trial. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 7, I63–170.Google Scholar
  22. Burns, D. D., Adams, R. L., Anastopoulos, A. D. (1985). The role of self-help assignments in the treatment of depression. In E. E. Beckham W. R. Leber (Eds.), Handbook of depression: Treatment, assessment, and research (pp. 634–668 ). Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  23. Clark, D. M., Salkovskis, P. M., Chalkley, A. J. (1985). Respiratory control as a treatment for panic attacks. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 16, 23–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Collins, R. L., Rothblum, E. D., Wilson, G. T. (1986). The comparative efficacy of cognitive and behavioral approaches to the treatment of obesity. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 299–318.Google Scholar
  25. Comaz-Diaz, L. (1981). Effects of cognitive and behavioral group treatment on the depressive symptomatology of Puerto Rican women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 627–632.Google Scholar
  26. Connors, M. E., Johnson, C. L., Stuckey, M. K. (1984). Treatment of bulimia with brief psychoeducational group therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 1512–1516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. de Jong, R., Treiber, R., Henrich, G. (1986). Effectiveness of two psychological treatments for inpatients with severe and chronic depressions. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 645–663.Google Scholar
  28. DeRubeis, R., Hollon, S., Evans, M., Bemis, K. (1982). Can psychotherapies for depression be descriminated? A systematic investigation of cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 744–756.Google Scholar
  29. Dobson, K. S., Shaw, B. F., Vallis, T. M. (1985). Reliability of a measure of the quality of cognitive therapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, 295–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Elkin, I., Parloff, M. B., Hadley, S. W., Autrey, J. H. (1985). NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program: Background and research plan. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 305–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Elkin, I., Shea, T., Watkins, J., Collins, J. (May, 1986 ). NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program: Comparative treatment outcome findings. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  32. Ellis, A. (1973). Humanistic psychotherapy. New York: Julian Press.Google Scholar
  33. Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Mersch, P. (1982). Cognition and exposure in vivo in the treatment of agoraphobia: Short-term and delayed effects. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 77–88.Google Scholar
  34. Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Kuipers, A. C. M., Eggeraat, J. B. (1978). Cognitive modification versus prolonged exposure in vivo: A comparison with agoraphobies as subjects. Behavior Research and Therapy, 16, 3341.Google Scholar
  35. Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Van der Helm, M., van Zanten, B. L., Plochg, I. (1980). Treatment of obsessive-compulsive patients: The contribution of self-instructional training to the effectiveness of exposure. Behavior Research and Therapy, 18, 61–66.Google Scholar
  36. Emmelkamp, P. M. G., Brilman, E., Kuiper, H., Mersch, P. (1986). The treatment of agoraphobia: A comparison of self-instructional training, Rational Emotive Therapy, and exposure in vivo. Behavior Therapy, 10, 37–53.Google Scholar
  37. Evans, M. D., Hollon, S. D., De Rubeis, R. J., Plasecki, J. M., Quason, V. B., Vye, C. ( 1985, November). Accounting for relapse in a treatment outcome study of depression. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy.Google Scholar
  38. Feighner, J. R., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G., Munoz, R. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 57–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Feindler, E. L., Ecton, R. B., Kingsley, D., Dubey, D. R. (1986). Group anger-control training for institutionalized psychiatric male adolescents. Behavior Therapy, 17, 109–123.Google Scholar
  40. Fennell, M. J. V., Teasdale, J. D. (1982). Cognitive therapy with chronic, drug-refractory depressed outpatients: A note of caution. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 455–460.Google Scholar
  41. Fennell, M. J. V., Teasdale, J. D. (1988). Cognitive therapy for depression: Individual differences and the process of change. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11, 253–271.Google Scholar
  42. Frank, J. D. (1974). Psychotherapy: The restoration of moral. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 271–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Frank, J. D. (1979). The present status of outcome studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 310–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Freeman, C., Sinclair, F., Turnbull, J., Annandale, A. (1985). Psychotherapy for bulimia: A controlled study. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 19, 473–478.Google Scholar
  45. Gallagher, D. E., Thompson, L. W. (1982). Treatment of major depressive disorder in older adult outpatients with brief psychotherapies. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 19, 482–490.Google Scholar
  46. Goldfried, M. R., Decenteceo, E. T., Weinberg, L. (1974). Systematic rational restructuring as a self-control technique. Behavior Therapy, 5, 247–254.Google Scholar
  47. Gomes-Schwartz, B. (1978). Effective ingredients in psychotherapy: Prediction of outcome from process variables. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 1023–1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Greenberg, L. S. (1981). Advances in clinical intervention research: A decade review. Canadian Psychology, 22, 23–37.Google Scholar
  49. Hamilton, E. W., Abramson, L. Y. (1983). Cognitive patterns and major depressive disorder: A longitudinal study in a hospital setting. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 173–184.Google Scholar
  50. Hazaleus, S. L., Deffenbacher, J. L. (1986). Relaxation and cognitive treatments of anger. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 222–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hollon, S. D., Kendall, P. C. (1980). Cognitive Self-Statements in Depression: Development of an automatic thought questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 383–395.Google Scholar
  52. Hollon, S. D., Mandell, M., Bemis, K., DeRubeis, R., Emerson, M., Evans, M., Kress, M. (1981). Reliability and validity of the Young Cognitive Therapy Scale. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  53. Holroyd, K. A., Andrasik, F., Westbrook, T. (1977). Cognitive control of tension headache. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 121–133.Google Scholar
  54. Imber, S., Glanz, L. M., Elkin, I., Sotsky, S. M., Boyer, J. L., Leber, W. R. (1986a). Ethical issues in psychotherapy research: Problems in a collaborative clinical trials study. American Psychologist, 41, 137146.Google Scholar
  55. Imber, S., Pilkonis, P., Sotsky, S., Elkin, I. (May, 1986b ). NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program: Differential treatment effects. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  56. Jarrett, R. B., Nelson, R. O. (1987). Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy of depression. Behavior Therapy, 18(3), 227–241.Google Scholar
  57. Jenni, M. A., Wollersheim, J. P. (1979). Cognitive therapy, stress management training, and the Type A behavior pattem. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 3, 61–73.Google Scholar
  58. Jones, R. G. (1969). A factored measure of Ellis’ irrational belief system, with personality and adjustment correlates. Dissertation Abstracts International, 29, 4379B–4380B. (University Microfilms No. 69–6443)Google Scholar
  59. Keller, K. E. (1983). Dysfunctional attitudes and the cognitive therapy for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 7, 437–444.Google Scholar
  60. Kendall, P. C. (1982). Cognitive processes and procedures in behavior therapy. In C. M. Franks, G. T. Wilson, P. C. Kendall, K. Brownell (Eds.), Annual review of behavior therapy: Theory and practice (pp. 120155 ). Gilford Press: New York.Google Scholar
  61. Kendall, P. C., Braswell, L. (1982). Cognitive-behavioral self-control therapy for children: A component analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 672–689.Google Scholar
  62. Kendall, P. C., Zupin, V. A. (1981). Individual versus group application of cognitive-behavioral self-control procedures with children. Behavior Therapy, 12, 344–359.Google Scholar
  63. Kiesler, D. J. ( 1981, June). Process analysis: A necessary ingredient of psychotherapy outcome research. Invited paper presented at the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Aspen, Colorado.Google Scholar
  64. Klerman, G. L., Weissman, M. M., Rounsaville, B. J., Chevron, E. S. (1984). Interpersonal psychotherapy of depression. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  65. Komblith, S. J., Rehm, L. P., O’Hara, M. W., Lamparski, D. M. (1983). The contribution of self-reinforcement training and behavioral assignments to the efficacy of self-control therapy for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 7, 499–528.Google Scholar
  66. Kovacs, M., Rush, A. J., Beck, A. T., Hollon, S. D. (1981). Depressed outpatients treated with cognitive therapy or pharmacotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 33–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Krantz, S. E., Hammen, C. L. (1979). The assessment of cognitive bias in depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 611–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lake, A., Rainey, J., Papsdorf, J. D. (1979). Biofeedback and Rational-Emotive Therapy in the management of migraine headache. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, I27–140.Google Scholar
  69. Larcombe, N. A., Wilson, P. H. (1984). An evaluation of cognitive-behavior therapy for depression in patients with multiple sclerosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 366–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lochman, J. E., Burch, P. R., Curry, J. F., Lampron, L. B. (1984). Treatment and generalization effects of cognitive behavioral and goal setting interventions with aggressive boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 915–916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lochman, J. E., Lampron, L. B., Burch, P. R., Curry, J. F. (1985). Client characteristics associated with behavior change for treated and untreated aggressive boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 527–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Luborsky, L., Singer, B., Luborsky, L. (1975). Comparative studies of psychotherapies: Is it true that “Everyone has won and all must have prizes?” Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 995–1004.Google Scholar
  73. Luborsky, L., Woody, G., McLellan, A., O’Brien, C., Rosenzweig, J. (1982). Can independent judges recognize different psychotherapies? An experience with manual-guided therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 49–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Luborsky, L., McLellan, A. T., Woody, G. E., O’Brien, C. P., Auerbach, A. (1985). Therapist success and its determinants. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 602–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mavissakalian, M., Michelson, L., Greenwald, D., Kornblith, S., Greenwald, M. (1983). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of agoraphobia: Paradoxical intention vs. self-statement training. Behavior Research and Therapy, 21, 75–86.Google Scholar
  76. McNamara, K., Horan, J. J. (1986). Experimental construct validity in the evaluation of cognitive and behavioral treatments for depression. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33, 23–30.Google Scholar
  77. Meichenbaum, D. (1974). Cognitive behavior modification. Morristown, NY: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  78. Michelson, L., Mavissakalian, M., Marchione, K. (1985). Cognitive and behavioral treatments of agorapho-bia: Clinical, behavioral, and psychophysiological outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychol-ogy, 53, 913–925.Google Scholar
  79. Miller, R. C., Berman, J. S. (1983). The efficacy of cognitive behavior therapies: A quantitative review of the research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 39–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Murphy, G. E., Simons, A. D., Wetzel, R. D., Lustman, P. J. (1984). Cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy: Singly and together in the treatment of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 3341Google Scholar
  81. Neilans, S. T. H., Israel, A. C. (1981). Toward maintenance and generalization of behavior change: Teaching children of self-regulation and self-instructional skills. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 189–195.Google Scholar
  82. Novaco, R. W. (1975). Anger control: The development and evaluation of an experimental treatment. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.Google Scholar
  83. Novaco, R. W. (1977a). Stress-inoculation: A cognitive therapy for anger and its application to a case of depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 600–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Novaco, R. W. (1977b). A stress-innoculation approach to anger management in the training of law enforcement officers. American Journal of Community Psychology, 5, 327–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Oei, T. P. S., Jackson, P. R. (1984). Some effective therapeutic factors in group cognitive-behavioral therapy with problem drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 119–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ordman, A. M., Kirschenbaum, D. S. (1985). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia: An initial outcome study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 305–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Persons, J. B., Burns, D. D. (1985). Mechanisms of action of cognitive therapy: The relative contributions of technical and interpersonal interventions. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 539–551.Google Scholar
  88. Peterson, C., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The Attributional Style Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 287–300.Google Scholar
  89. Peterson, C., Luborsky, L., Seligman, M. E. P. (1983). Attributions and depressive mood shifts: A case study using the symptom-context method. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 96–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rehm, L. P., Kornblith, S. J., O’Hara, M. W., Lamparski, D. M., Romano, J. M., Volkin, J. I. (1981). An evaluation of major components in a self-control therapy program for depression. Behavior Modification, 5, 459–490.Google Scholar
  91. Rehm, L. P., Kaslow, N. J., Rabin, A. S. (1987). Cognitive and behavioral targets in a self-control therapy program for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 60–67.Google Scholar
  92. Reynolds, W. M., Coasts, K. I. (1986). A comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy and relaxation training for the treatment of depression in adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 653660.Google Scholar
  93. Rice, L. N., Greenberg, L. S. (1984). The new research paradigm. In L. N. Rice L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), Patterns of change: Intensive analysis of psychotherapy process (pp. 7–25 ). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  94. Rosenbaum, M. (1980). A schedule for assessing self-control behavior: Preliminary findings. Behavior Thera-py, 11, 109–121.Google Scholar
  95. Ross, M., Scott, M. (1985). An evaluation of the effectiveness of individual and group cognitive therapy in the treatment of depressed patients in an inner city health centre. Journal of the Royal College of General Practicioners, 35, 239–242.Google Scholar
  96. Rush, A. J., Watkins, J. T. (1981). Group versus individual cognitive therapy: A pilot study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 95–103.Google Scholar
  97. Rush, A. J., Beck, A. T., Kovacs, M., Hollon, S. (1977). Comparative efficacy of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressed outpatients. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 17–37.Google Scholar
  98. Rush, A. J., Beck, A. T., Kovacs, M., Weissenburger, J., Hollon, S. D. (1982). Comparison of the effects of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy on helplessness and self-concept. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 862–866.Google Scholar
  99. Safran, J. (1985, June). Cognitive therapy task markers. In L. Greenberg (Chair), Task analysis of change events. Workshop conducted at the meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Evanston, Illinois.Google Scholar
  100. Safran, J. D., Vallis, T. M., Segal, Z. V., Shaw, B. F. (1986). Assessment of core cognitive processes in cognitive therapy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 509–526.Google Scholar
  101. Safran, J. D., Vallis, T. M., Segal, Z. V., Shaw, B. F., Balog, W., Epstein, L. (1987). Measuring session change in cognitive therapy. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 1(2), 117–128.Google Scholar
  102. Salkovskis, P. M., Jones, D. R., Clark, D. M. (1986). Respiratory control in the treatment of panic attacks: Replication and extension with concurrent measurement of behavior and pCO2. British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 526–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Schlichter, K. J., Horan, J. J. (1981). Effects of stress inoculation on the anger and aggression management skills of institutionalized juvenile delinquents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 359–365.Google Scholar
  104. Shaw, B. F. (1977). Comparison of cognitive therapy and behavior therapy in the treatment of depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 543–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Silberschatz, B., Fretter, P. B., Curtis, J. T. (1986). How do interpretations influence the process of psychotherapy? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 646–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Silverman, J. S., Silverman, J. A., Eardley, D. A. (1984). Do maladaptive attitudes cause depression? Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 28–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Simons, A. D., Garfield, S. L., Murphy, G. E. (1984). The process of change in cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 45–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Simons, A. D., Lustman, P. J., Wetzel, R. D., Murphy, G. E. (1985). Predicting response to cognitive therapy of depression: The role of learned resourcefulness. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 79–89.Google Scholar
  109. Simons, A. D., Murphy, G. E., Levine, J. L., Wetzel, R. D. (1986). Cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression: Sustained improvement over one year. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 43–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith. M. L., Glass, G. V., Miller, T. I. (1980). The benefits of psychotherapy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J., Robins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria: Rationale and reliability, Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 773–782.Google Scholar
  112. Stenn, P. G., Mothersill, K. J., Brooke, R. I. (1979). Biofeedback and a cognitive behavioral approach to treatment of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Behavior Therapy, 10, 29–36.Google Scholar
  113. Steuer, J. L., Mintz, J., Hammen, C. L., Hill, M. A., Jarvik, L. F., McCarley, T., Motoeke, P., Rosen, R. (1984). Cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic group psychotherapy in treatment of geriatric depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 180–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Straatmeyer, A. J., Watkins, J. T. (1974). Rational-emotive therapy and the reduction of speech anxiety. Rational Living, 9, 33–37.Google Scholar
  115. Tan, S., Bruini, J. (1986). Cognitive-behavior therapy with adult patients with epilepsy: A controlled outcome study. Epilepsia, 27, 225–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Taylor, F. G., Marshall, W. L. (1977). Experimental analysis of a cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 59–72.Google Scholar
  117. Teasdale, J. D., Fennel, M. J. V. (1982). Immediate effects on depression of cognitive therapy interventions. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 3, 343–352.Google Scholar
  118. Teasdale, J. D., Fennell, M. J. V., Hibbert, G. A., Amies, P. L. (1984). Cognitive therapy for major depressive disorder in primary care. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 400–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Truax, C. B., Carkhuff, R. (1967). Towards effective counseling and psychotherapy. Chicago: Aldine. Turner, R. W., Wehl, C. K. (1984). Treatment of unipolar depression in problem drinkers. Advances in Behavior Research and Therapy, 6, 115–125.Google Scholar
  120. Vallis, T. M., Shaw, B. F. (1987). An investigation of patient difficulty and its relationship to therapist competence in cognitive therapy for depression. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  121. Vallis, T. M., Shaw, B. F., Dobson, K. S. (1986). The Cognitive Therapy Scale: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 381–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Watkins, J. T. (1977). The rational-emotive dynamics of impulsive disorders. In A. Ellis R. Grieger (Eds.), Handbook of rational-emotive therapy (pp. 135–152 ). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  123. Watkins, J. T. (1983). Treatment of impulse control disorders. In C. E. Walker (Ed.), Handbook of clinical psychology: Therapy, research and practice (pp. 590–632 ). Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irw in Press.Google Scholar
  124. Watkins, J. T., Rush, A. J. (1983). The Cognitive Response Test. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 7, 425436.Google Scholar
  125. Watkins, J., Leber, W., Imber, S., Collins, J. (1986, May). NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program: Temporal course of symptomatic change. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  126. Weissman, A. N., Beck, A. T. (1978). Development and validation of Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Paper presented at the twelth annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Chicago, Illinois.Google Scholar
  127. Williams, J. M. G. (1984). Cognitive-behavior therapy for depression: Problems and perspectives. British Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 254–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Williams, S. L., Rappoport, A. (1983). Cognitive treatment in the natural environment for agoraphobies. Behavior Therapy, 14, 299–313.Google Scholar
  129. Wilson, P. H., Goldin, J. V., Charbonneau-Powis, M. (1983). Comparative efficacy of behavioral and cognitive treatments of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 7, 111–124.Google Scholar
  130. Young, J., Beck, A. T. (1980). Cognitive Therapy Scale: Rating manual. Unpublished manuscript, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  131. Young, J., Shaw, B. F., Beck, A. T., Budenz, D. (1981). Assessment of competence in cognitive therapy. Unpublished manuscript, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  132. Zeiss, A. M., Lewinsohn, P. M., Munoz, R. F. (1979). Nonspecific improvement effects in depression using interpersonal skills training, pleasant activity schedules, or cognitive training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 427–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Zettle, R. D. (1987). Component and process analysis of cognitive therapy. Psychological Reports, 61 (3), 939–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Edward Beckham
    • 1
  • John T. Watkins
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA

Personalised recommendations