Commuting and Physical Symptoms
Whereas commuting seems to be related to stress-induced emotional strain and will be the focus of the next chapter (Chapter 5), there is also evidence that commuting, particularly by car, can directly cause physical and physiological strain or damage. Among the known physical consequences of commuting by car are elevated risk for acute herniated lumbar intervertebral disk (Kelsey & Hardy, 1975; Kelsey et al., 1984), cardiovascular stress (Aronow, Harris, Isbell, Rokaw, & Imparato, 1972), and possible associations with various types of cancer (Gubrean, Usel, Bolay, Fioretta, & Puissant, 1992). We review the evidence for each of these consequences separately and then discuss both their implications for employers and possible prevention methods (see Table 4.1 for a summary of these effects).
KeywordsBack Pain Physical Symptom Stomach Cancer Truck Driver Road Accident
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