The American Association of Clinical Psychologists, 1917–1919
On December 28, 1917, a group of eight psychologists got together at the American Psychological Association meeting in Pittsburgh (on the campus of Carnegie Institute of Technology) and formed an independent organization, the American Association of Clinical Psychologists (AACP). They elected as their chair J. E. Wallace Wallin and as their secretary Leta S. Hollingworth. The others in the group were Francis N. Maxfield, James B. Miner, David Mitchell, Rudolf Pintner, Clara Schmitt, and Guy M. Whipple. The purposes of the organization (see Appendix A) were basically twofold: to increase the morale and espirit de corps of clinical psychologists by raising professional standards, and to encourage research in clinical psychology. It was the first aim, the professional one, that seemed to conflict with the purpose of the American Psychological Association (APA). (According to its bylaws, the APA officially had only one objective, to advance psychology as a science.) These eight founders tentatively chose 48 individuals as prospective members of this organization, 46 of whom subsequently confirmed that they wished to be members (see Table 2-1). All but one had PhD degrees. William Healy had an MD but not a PhD, and five people had both MD and PhD degrees (Bruner, Dearborn, Gesell, Haines, and Stevens).
KeywordsAmerican Psychological Association Clinical Psychologist Carnegie Institute Gift Child Exceptional Child
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