The Spinoff of Other Specialty Groups Related to Division 12
In a sense, the modern subdivisions of psychology go back all the way to Wilhelm Wundt, who pointed out that what he called “physiological psychology” could be considered a scientific field in the same sense as physiology was defined as a science. What is often not recalled is that according to Wundt, another whole side of psychology existed that did not so easily lend itself to scientific methods such as formal experimentation. This Wundt labeled as Völkerpsychologie (perhaps translatable as “cultural psychology”) and defined to include language, religion, and other historical and cultural matters obviously related to human behavior (Cahan & White, 1922). In contrast, Sigmund Freud defined his proposed science of psychoanalysis to include a broad range of phenomena ordinarily considered in American universities to be a part of the “humanities.” It is interesting that in Europe and to an increasing extent in the United States, Freudian influence on the so-called humanities has been greater than on academic psychology. Among the well-known psychoanalysts of our day are Erik Erikson (who was an artist and a Montessori teacher before becoming an analyst) and Peter Gay, Freud’s modern biographer (who is a professional historian).
KeywordsApplied Behavior Analysis Counseling Psychology Specialty Group Professional Historian Academic Psychology
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.