Advertisement

Hypnosis

Scientific Status and Clinical Relevance
  • Ian E. Wickramasekera

Abstract

Hypnosis is a form of information processing in which voluntarily initiated suspension of peripheral awareness and critical analytic mentation can readily lead in some people to major changes in perception, memory, and mood that have important behavioral and physiological consequences. There are individual differences in how easily these voluntarily initiated changes in perception, mood, and memory can subjectively begin to seem involuntary or quasi-automatic. It appears that conditions of (a) sensory restriction and (b) very high, or (c) very low physiological arousal predispose all people toward the hypnotic mode of information processing (Wickramasekera, 1977b).

Keywords

Abnormal Psychology Hypnotic Susceptibility Critical Analytic Mentation Hypnotic Induction Hypnotic Analgesia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ashton, M. A. & McDonald, R. Effect of hypnosis on verbal and non-verbal creativity. Paper presented at American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, September, 1982.Google Scholar
  2. Barber, T. X. Hypnotizability, suggestibility and personality. Psychological Reports, 1964, 14, 299–320.Google Scholar
  3. Barber, T. X. Hypnosis: A scientific approach. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1969.Google Scholar
  4. Barber, T. X. Changing “unchangeable” bodily process by (hypnotic) suggestions. Advances, 1984, 1, 7–40.Google Scholar
  5. Benson, H., Greenwood, M. M. & Klemchuck, H. The relaxation response: Psycho-physiological aspects and clinical applications. International Journal of Psychiatric Medicine, 1975, 6, 87–97.Google Scholar
  6. Black, S. Mind and body, London: William Kimber, 1969.Google Scholar
  7. Bowers, K. S. Hypnosis for the seriously curious. New York: Norton, 1976.Google Scholar
  8. Bowers, K. S. & Kelley, P. Stress, disease, psychotherapy and hypnosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1979, 88, 490–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowers, K. S. & Meichenbaum, D. Unconscious revisited. New York: Wiley-lnterscience, 1984.Google Scholar
  10. Bowers, P. E. The classic suggestion effect: Relationships with scales of hypnotizability, effortless experiencing and imagery vividness. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1982, 3, 270–279.Google Scholar
  11. Bowers, P. E. & Bowers, K. S. Hypnosis and creativity: A theoretical and empirical rapprochement. In E. Fromm, R. E. Shor (Eds.), Hypnosis: developments in research and new perspectives (2nd ed.). New York: Aldine, 1979.Google Scholar
  12. Cedercreutz, C. Hypnotic treatment of 100 cases of migraines. In F. H. Frankel, H. S. Zamansky (Eds.), Hypnosis at its bicentennial. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. Collison, D. A. Which asthmatic patients should be treated by hypnotherapy. Medical Journal of Australia, 1975, 1, 776–781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dane, J. R. A comparison of waking instructions and posthypnotic suggestion for lucid dream induction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, Atlanta, 1984.Google Scholar
  15. (a).
    Das, J. P. The Pavlovian theory of hypnosis: An evaluation. Journal of Mental Sciences, 1958, 104, 82–90.Google Scholar
  16. (b).
    Das, J. P. Conditioning and hypnosis. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1958, 56, 110–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dave, R. Effects of hypnotically induced dreams on creative problem solving. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1979, 88, 293–302.Google Scholar
  18. Diamond, M. J. Modification of hypnotizability: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 1974, 81, 180–193.Google Scholar
  19. Diamond, M. J. Issues and methods for modifying responsivity to hypnosis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1977, 296, 119–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Engstrom, D. R. Hypnotic susceptibility, EEG-alpha and self-regulation. In G. E. Schwartz Sr D. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and self-regulation. New York: Plenum Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  21. Evans, F. J. The structure of hypnosis: A factor analytic investigation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 1965.Google Scholar
  22. Evans, F. J. Suggestibility in the normal waking state. Psychological Bulletin, 1967, 2, 114–129.Google Scholar
  23. Evans, F. J. Hypnosis and sleep: The control of altered states of consciousness. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1977, 296, 162–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Evans, F. J. Forensic uses and abuses of hypnosis. American Psychological Association, Division 30 Newsletter. April 1983, p. 6.Google Scholar
  25. Evans, F. J., Orne, E. C. & Markowsky, P. A. Punctuality and hypnotizability. Paper pre- sented at Eastern Psychological Association, Boston, Massachusetts, April 1977.Google Scholar
  26. Eysenck, H. J. The structure of human personality ( 2nd ed. ). London: Methuen, 1960.Google Scholar
  27. Foenander, G., Burrows, G. D., Gerschman, J. & Home, D. J. Phobic behavior and hypnotic susceptibility. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1980, 8, 41–46.Google Scholar
  28. Frankel, F. H. & Orne, M. T. Hypnotizability and phobic behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1976, 33, 1259–1261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gerschman, J., Burrows, G. D., Reade, P. & Foenander, G. Hypnotizability and the treatment of dental phobic behavior. In G. D. Burrows, D. R. Collison, L. Dennerstein (Eds.), Hypnosis. New York: Elsevier, 1979.Google Scholar
  30. Graham, C. & Evans, F. J. Hypnotizability and the deployment of working attention. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1977, 86, 631–638.Google Scholar
  31. Graham, K. R. & Greene, L. D. Hypnotic susceptibility related to an independent measure of compliance—Alumni annual giving. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1981, 29, 351–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gruzelier, J., Brow, T., Perry, A., Rhonder, J. & Thomas M. Hypnotic susceptibility: A lateral predisposition and altered cerebral asymmetry under hypnosis. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 1984, 2, 131–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gur, R. C. An attention-controlled operant procedure for enhancing hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1974, 83, 644–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hammer, A. G., Evans, F. J. & Bartlett, M. Factors in hypnosis and suggestion. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1963, 67, 15–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hilgard, E. R. Hypnotic susceptibility. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1965.Google Scholar
  36. Hilgard, E. R. Divided consciousness: Multiple controls in human thought and action, New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1977.Google Scholar
  37. Hilgard, E. R. Hypnotic susceptibility: Implications for measurement. International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis, 1982, 30, 394–403.Google Scholar
  38. Hilgard, E. R. & Hilgard, J. R. Hypnosis In the relief of pain Los Altos, CA: Kaufman, 1975.Google Scholar
  39. Hilgard, E. R. & Tart, C. T. Responsiveness to suggestions following waking and imagination instructions and following induction of hypnosis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1966, 71, 196–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hilgard, J. R. Personality and hypnosis: A study of imaginative involvement (rev. ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  41. Home, R. L., Evans, F. J. & Orne, M. T. Random number generation, psychopathology and therapeutic change. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1982, 39, 680–683.Google Scholar
  42. Hull, C. Hypnosis and suggestibility. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1933.Google Scholar
  43. Ingram, R. E., Saccuzzo, D. P., McNeil, B. W. & McDonald, R. Speed of information processing in high and low susceptible subjects: A preliminary study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1979, 27 (1), 42–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jaynes, J. The origins of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977.Google Scholar
  45. Kelly, S. F. Measured hypnotic response and phobic behavior. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1984, 32, 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kihlstrom, J. F. Models of posthypnotic amnesia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1977, 296, 284–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kihlstrom, J. F. Hypnosis and psychopathology: Retrospect and prospect. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1979, 88 (5), 459–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. King, D. R. & McDonald, R. D. Hypnotic susceptibility and verbal conditioning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1976, 24, 29–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Knox, V. J. & Gekoski, W. L. Analgesic effect of acupuncture in high and low hypnotizables. Paper presented at a meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1981, October.Google Scholar
  50. LaBerge, S. P. Awake in your dreams: The new world of lucid dreaming. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983.Google Scholar
  51. Larsen, S. Strategies for reducing phobic behavior. Dissertation Abstracts, 1966, 26, 6850.Google Scholar
  52. Laurence, J. R. & Perry, C. Hypnotically created memory and highly hypnotizable subjects. Science, 1983, 222, 523–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. London, P. & Fuhrer, M. Hypnosis, motivation and performance. Journal of Personality, 1961, 29, 321–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Maslach, C., Marshall, G. & Zimbardo, P. G. Hypnotic control of peripheral skin temperature: A case report. Psychophysiology, 1972, 9 (6), 600–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. McGlashen, T. H., Evans, F. J. & Orne, M. T. The nature of hypnotic analgesia and placebo response to experimental pain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1969, 31, 227–246.Google Scholar
  56. Mischel, W. Personality and assessment, New York: Wiley, 1968.Google Scholar
  57. Monterio, K., McDonald, H. & Hilgard, E. R. Imagery, absorption and hypnosis: A factorial study. Journal of Mental Imagery, 1980, 4, 63–81.Google Scholar
  58. Morgan, A. H. The heritability of hypnotic susceptibility in twins. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1973, 82, 55–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Morgan, A. H. & Hilgard, E. R. Age differences in susceptibility to hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1973, 21, 78–85.Google Scholar
  60. Morgan, A. H., Hilgard, E. R. & Darert, E. C. The heritability of hypnotic susceptibility of twins: A preliminary report. Behavioral Genetics,1970, 1, 21.3–224.Google Scholar
  61. Nace, E. P., Warwick, A. M., Kelley, R. L. & Evans, F. J. Hypnotizability and outcome in brief psychotherapy. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1982, 43, 129–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Nash, M. R., Lynn, S. J. & Givens, D. L. Adult hypnotic susceptibility, childhood punishment, and child abuse: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1984, 32 (1), 6–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Neisser, U. Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1967.Google Scholar
  64. Nisbett, R. E. & Wilson, T. D. Telling more than we know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 1977, 84, 231–259.Google Scholar
  65. Orne, M. T. The construct of hypnosis: Implications of the definition for research and practice. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1977, 296, 1–314.Google Scholar
  66. Orne, M. T. (Chair). Scientific status of refreshing recollection by the use of hypnosis (Council Report of American Medical Association). International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1986, 34, 1–12.Google Scholar
  67. Pena, F. Perceptual isolation and hypnotic susceptibility. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, 1963.Google Scholar
  68. Perry, C. Is hypnotizability modifiable? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1977, 25, 125–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Perry, C., John, R. & Hollander, B. Hypnotizability and phobic behavior. Paper presented at the 34th Annual S.E.C.H. Convention, Indianapolis, October, 1982.Google Scholar
  70. Perry, C., Gelfand, R. & Marcovitch, P. The relevance of hypnotic susceptibility in the clinical context. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1979, 88, 592–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Pettinati, H. M., Home, R. L. & Staats, J. M. Hypnotizability in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1985, 42, 1014–1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Rivers, S. M. Hypnosis and meditation. Paper read at 84th Annual Convention of American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., 1976.Google Scholar
  73. Saccuzzo, D. P., Safnan, D., Anderson, V. & McNeill, B. Visual information processing in high and low susceptible subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1982, 30, 32–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Sackeim, H. A., Packer, I. K. & Gur, R. C. Hemisphericity, cognitive set, and susceptibility to subliminal perception. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1977, 86, 624–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sanders, R. S. & Rehyer, J. Sensory deprivation and the enhancement of hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1969, 74, 375–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Shevrin, H. & Dickman, S. The psychological unconscious: A necessary assumption for all psychological theory? American Psychologist, 1980, 35, 421–434.Google Scholar
  77. Shor, R. E. A note on the shock tolerance of real and simulating hypnotic subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1964, 12, 258–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Shor, R. E. & Orne, E. C. Manual: Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility Form A. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  79. Spanos, N. P. & Barber, T. X. Toward a convergence in hypnosis research. American Psychologist, 1974, 29, 500–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Spiegel, D., Detrick, D. & Frischolz, E. Hypnotizability and psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1982, 139 (4), 431–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Spiegel, H., An eye-roll test for hypnotizability. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1972, 15 (1), 25–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Stern, J. A., Brown, M., Ulett, G. A. & Sletten, 1. A comparison of hypnosis, acupuncture, morphine, valium, aspirin, and placebo in the management of experimentally induced pain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1977, 296, 175–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. St. Jean, R. & MacLeod, C. Hypnosis, absorption and time perception. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1983, 92, 81–86.Google Scholar
  84. Stoyva, J. M. Posthypnotically suggested dreams and the sleep cycle. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1965, 12, 287–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Webb, R. A. Suggestibility and verbal conditioning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1962, 10, 275–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Weiss, R. L., Ullman, L. P. & Krasner, L. On the relationship between hypnotizability and response to verbal operant conditioning. Psychological Reports, 1960, 59–60.Google Scholar
  87. Weitzenhoffer, A. M. & Hilgard, E. R. Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Form C. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  88. Wickramasekera, I. The effects of sensory restriction on hypnotic susceptibility. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1969, 17, 217–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. (a).
    Wickramasekera, I. The effects of sensory restriction on hypnosis: A hypothesis and more preliminary data. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1970, 76, 69–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. (b).
    Wickramasekera, I. The effects of hypnosis and a control procedure on verbal conditioning. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Miami, September 1970.Google Scholar
  91. (c).
    Wickramasekera, I. Goals and some methods in psychotherapy: Hypnosis and isolation. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1970, 13 (2) 95–107.Google Scholar
  92. (d).
    Wickramasekera, I. Reinforcement and/or transference in hypnosis and psychotherapy: A hypnothesis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 1970, 12 (3), 137–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Wickramasekera, I. Effects of EMG feedback training on susceptibility to hypnosis: preliminary observations. Proceedings of the 79th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1971, 6, 787–785. (Summary)Google Scholar
  94. Wickramasekera, I. A technique for controlling a certain type of sexual exhibitionism. Psychotherapy: Theory, research and practice, 1972, 9, 207–210.Google Scholar
  95. Wickramasekera, I. The effects of EMG feedback on hypnotic susceptibility: More preliminary data. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1973, 82, 74–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. (a).
    Wickramasekera, I. (Ed.). Biofeedback, behavior therapy, and hypnosis. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1976.Google Scholar
  97. (b).
    Wickramasekera, I. Aversive behavior rehearsal for sexual exhibitionism. Behavior Therapy, 1976, 7, 167–176.Google Scholar
  98. (a).
    Wickramasekera, I. The placebo effect and biofeedback for headache pain. Proceedings of the San Diego Biomedical Symposium. New York: Academic Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  99. (b).
    Wickramasekera, I. On attempts to modify hypnotic susceptibility: Some psycho-physiological procedures and promising directions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1977, 296, 143–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Wickramasekera, I. A model of the patient at high risk for chronic stress-related disorders. Paper presented at Annual Convention of the Biofeedback Society of America, San Diego, California, 1979.Google Scholar
  101. (a).
    Wickramasekera, I. Aversive behavior rehearsal: A cognitive behavioral procedure. In D. J. Cox, R. J. Daitzman (Eds.), Exhibitionism: Description, assessment and treatment. New York: Harland, 1980.Google Scholar
  102. (b).
    Wickramasekera, I. A conditioned response model of the placebo effect: Predictions from the model. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1980, 5, 5–18.Google Scholar
  103. Wickramasekera, I. A model of people at risk to develop chronic stress related disorders. In F. J. McGuigan, W. E. Sime, J. MacDonald-Wallace (Eds.), Stress and tension control. New York: Plenum Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  104. (a).
    Wickramasekera, I. A conditioned response model of the placebo effect: Predictions and postdiction from the model. In L. White, B. Tusky, G. Schwartz (Eds.), Placebo: Clinical phenomena and new insights. New York: Guilford Press, 1985.Google Scholar
  105. (b).
    Wickramasekera, 1. Development of a self-report measure of hypnotic ability: Preliminary findings. Paper presented at the Biofeedback Society of America, 1985, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  106. Wickramasekera, I. Parapsychological verbal reports, hypnotizability, and stress-related disorders. Paper invited to the 35th Annual International Conference on Parapsychology, Washington, D. C., November, 1986.Google Scholar
  107. Wilson, S. C. & Barber, T. X. The fantasy-prone personality: implications for understanding imagery, hypnosis and parapsychological phenomena. In A. A. Sheikh (Ed.), Imagery: Current theory research and application. New York: Wiley, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian E. Wickramasekera
    • 1
  1. 1.Behavioral Medicine Clinic and Stress Disorders Research LaboratoryEastern Virginia Medical SchoolNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations