Mechanisms and Treatment of Raynaud’s Disease and Phenomenon
Raynaud’s phenomenon is characterized by episodic digital vasospasms that are provoked by cold exposure or emotional stress or both (Freedman & Ianni, 1983a). Estimates of its prevalence range from 4.3% of female respondents to a questionnaire study in North Carolina to 19% of female patients of general practitioners in the United Kingdom (Weinrich, Maricq, Keil, McGregor, & Diat, 1990; Simian, Holligan, Brennan, & Madison, 1990). The corresponding estimates for males were 2.7% and 11%, respectively.
KeywordsFinger Blood Flow Autogenic Training Temperature Feedback Finger Temperature Progressive Relaxation
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