Advertisement

Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on the Scent-Marking and Agonistic Behaviors of White-Tailed Deer

  • James R. Fudge
  • Karl V. Miller
  • R. Larry Marchinton
  • Delwood C. Collins
  • Thomas R. Tice

Abstract

Male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) exhibit signpost marking behavior during both the sexually active and quiescent periods (Marchinton et al. 1990, Ozoga 1989). During the breeding season, the primary signposts are rubs and scrapes. Rubs consist of small trees on which the buck rubs his antlers and forehead (Moore and Marchinton 1974). Atkeson and Marchinton (1982) identified seasonally active tubular apocrine sudoriferous glands in the forehead tissue of both male and female whitetails. Moore and Marchinton (1974) hypothesized that rubs could serve to delineate dominance areas within a buck’s home range, even though such areas are not actively defended against subordinate males.

Keywords

Breeding Season Testosterone Level Alpha Male Subordinate Male Hierarchical Position 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. Altmann, J. 1974, Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49: 227 - 267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkeson, T. D., and Marchinton, R. L. 1982, Forehead glands in white-tailed deer. J. Mammal., 63: 613 - 617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrette, C., and Vandal, D. 1990, Sparring, relative antler size, and assessment in male caribou. Behay. Ecol. Sociobiol., 26: 383 - 387.Google Scholar
  4. Bowyer, R. T., and Kitchen, D. W. 1987, Significance of scent-marking by Roosevelt elk. J. Mammal., 68:418-í23.Google Scholar
  5. Bubenik, G. A., and Schams, D. 1986, Relationship of age to seasonal levels of LH, FSH, prolactin, and testosterone in male white-tailed deer. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 83: L79 - 183.Google Scholar
  6. Hirth, D. H. 1977, Social behavior of white-tailed deer in relation to habitat. Wildl. Monogr., No. 53. 55 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Johansen, K. L. 1987, “Seasonal Variation in Marking Behavior of White-tailed Deer”, M. S. Thesis, Univ. Georgia, Athens. 53 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Koutnik, D. L. 1983, The role of ritualized fighting behaviour in the social system of California mule deer. Biol. Behay., 8: 81 - 93.Google Scholar
  9. Lincoln, G. A., Guinness, F., and Short, R. V. 1972, The way in which testosterone controls the social and sexual behavior of the red deer stag (Cervus elaphus). Horm. Behay., 3: 375 - 396.Google Scholar
  10. Mann, D. R., Free, C., Weloon, C., Scott, C., and Collins, D. C. 1987, Mutually independent effects of ACTH on LH and Testosterone secretion. Endocrinology, 120: 1542 - 1550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Marchinton, R. L., and Hirth, D. H. 1984, Behavior. Pages 129-168. in: “White-tailed deer: ecology and management”. L. K. Halls, ed., Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pa.Google Scholar
  12. Marchinton, R. L., Johansen, K. L., and Miller, K. V. 1990, Behavioural components of white-tailed deer scent marking: social and seasonal effects. “Chemical Signals in Vertebrates V”, D. W. Macdonald, M. Muller-Schwarze, and S. E. Natynczuk, eds., Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. McMillin, J. M., Seal, U. S., Kennlyne, K. D., Erickson, A. W., and Jones, J. E. 1974, Annual testosterone rhythms in the adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis). Endocrinology 94: 1034 - 1040.Google Scholar
  14. Miller, K. V. 1985, “Social and Biological Aspects of Signpost Communication in White-tailed Deer”, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Georgia, Athens. 114 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Miller, K. V., Marchinton, R. L., Forand, K. J., and Johansen, K. L. 1987a, Dominance, testosterone levels, and scraping activity in a captive herd of white-tailed deer. J. Mammal., 68: 812 - 817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Miller, K. V., Rhodes, O. E., Jr., Litchfield, T. R., Smith, M. H., and Marchinton, R. L. 1987b, Reproductive characteristics of yearling and adult male white-tailed deer. Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish Wildl. Agencies, 41: 378 - 384.Google Scholar
  17. Mirarchi, R. E., Howland, B. E., Scanlon, P. F., Kirkpatrick, R. L., and Sanford, L. M. 1978, Seasonal variation in plasma LH, FSH, prolactin, and testosterone concentrations in adult male white-tailed deer. Can. J. Zool., 56: 121 - 127.Google Scholar
  18. Moore, W. G., and Marchinton, R. L. 1974, Marking behavior and its social function in white-tailed deer. Pages 447-456 in “The Behaviour of Ungulates and Its Relation to Management”. V. Geist and F. Walther, eds. IUCN Publ. 24. Morges, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  19. Mossing, T., and Damber, J. 1981, Rutting behavior and androgen variation in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.). J. Chem. Ecol., 7: 377 - 389.Google Scholar
  20. Ozoga, J. J. 1989, Temporal pattern of white-tailed deer scraping behavior. J. Mammal., 70: 633 - 636.Google Scholar
  21. Ozoga, J. J., and Verme, L. J. 1985, Comparative breeding behavior and performance of yearling vs. prime-age white-tailed bucks. J. Wildl. Manage., 49: 364 - 372.Google Scholar
  22. Tice, T. R., and Cowsar, D. R. 1984, Biodegradable controlled-release parenteral systems. Pharmaceut. Technol., 26-35.Google Scholar
  23. West, N. O., and Nordan, H. C. 1976, Hormonal regulation of reproduction and the antler cycle in the male Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). Part I. Seasonal changes in the histology of the reproductive organs, serum testosterone, sperm production, and the antler cycle. Can. J. Zool., 54:1617-1636.Google Scholar
  24. Whitehead, P. E., and West, N. 0. 1977, Metabolic clearance rates of testosterone at different times of the year in male caribou and reindeer. Can. J. Zool., 55: 1692 - 1697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Winer, B. J. 1962, Statistical Principles in Experimental Design. McGraw-Hill Inc., New York. 672 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Fudge
    • 1
  • Karl V. Miller
    • 1
  • R. Larry Marchinton
    • 1
  • Delwood C. Collins
    • 2
  • Thomas R. Tice
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Forest ResourcesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Veterans’ Administration Medical Center and University of Kentucky Medical CenterLexingtonUSA
  3. 3.Southern Research InstituteBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations