The Evolution of Alarm Pheromones
It is generally agreed that most signals evolved from aspects of the signal emitter not originally used for signalling. Discussants of ritualization, for example, often state that visual displays have been built up from or enhanced by locomotory, preening or other movements previously devoid of iconic value. Some authors portray receivers as playing a passive role in signal installment. The assertion by Dawkins and Krebs (1978) that “the actor is selected to manipulate the behaviour of the reactor” epitomizes such a portrayal because it is implied that receivers already have perceptual-behavioral tendencies which the emitters exploit.
KeywordsSocial Insect Alarm Pheromone Predator Attack Club Cell Freshwater Gastropod
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