Preparation methods for alkali metal intercalation compounds of oxides and chalcogenides
There have been numerous advances in the understanding of intercalation systems in the last few years. These advances have been largely driven by recognition of the utility of these materials in applications such as batteries, sensors, etc. which have brought a critical mass of scientists together to work on the subject.(1) One of the aspects which has been fruitful is the area of synthesis. Improved reaction methods have allowed the preparation of many old intercalation compounds in high purity and has led to the elucidation of many new systems. Traditional thinking of intercalation systems as layered systems has been broadened to include three dimensional and even amorphous hosts. Techniques learned in intercalation chemistry have been used to prepare systems which are of interest for all the same reasons that any solid state system is of interest including structure, bonding, physical properties and their interrelation. There has been, in effect, increased recognition that the traditional rules of chemistry such as preferred oxidation states and coordination geometries for particular ions still generally apply, but in many cases the limits may be extended in intercalation systems. The purpose of this article is to outline some of the synthetic techniques which have advanced the field of intercalation in oxides and chalcogenides. We will concentrate mainly on compounds of alkali metals since these presented formidable challenges and because they have been of considerable practical interest as battery electrode materials.
KeywordsIntercalation System Intercalation Compound Lithium Intercalation Solid State System Synthetic Technique
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