Choline Deficiency, Lipid Peroxidation, Liver Cell Surface Receptor Alterations and Liver Tumor Promotion

  • Hishashi Shinozuka
  • Chhanda Gupta
  • Atsuo Hattori
  • James M. Betschart
  • Mohamed A. Virji


The two-stage model of carcinogenesis, originally demonstrated in the skin of mice and rabbits, has been extended to several other organ systems including the liver1,2. The importance of tumor promotion in the genesis of human cancers has been recognized3, and the better understanding of the mechanism of tumor promotion would be critical in the formulation of the overall strategies for the prevention of human cancers. Considerable insights have been gained for the mechanisms of action of phorbol esters, the classical and perhaps most intensively studied skin tumor promoter4 Studies of liver carcinogenesis during the past 15 years have identified a number of promoters with diverse properties1, but the mechanisms of their action remain elusive.


Tumor Promotion Scatchard Plot Glucagon Receptor Epidermal Growth Factor Stimulation Choline Deficiency 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hishashi Shinozuka
    • 1
  • Chhanda Gupta
    • 1
  • Atsuo Hattori
    • 1
  • James M. Betschart
    • 1
  • Mohamed A. Virji
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of Pittsburgh, School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

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