Advertisement

Abstract

Other chapters in this volume invoke synapses, transmitters, channels, and second messengers as cellular elements of learning. This chapter considers the evolutionary origins of these elements, particularly ionic channels. * Apparently each of the elements is present in the first animals with a nervous system, and we are as yet not aware of major improvements made through subsequent evolution. Thus, if these are indeed the prerequisites of learning, we can expect that mechanisms of learning have broad similarities across taxonomic boundaries. More complex accounts of this subject have been given in Hille (1984, 1987), where full references for many of the statements made here may be found.

Keywords

Giant Axon Electrical Excitability Full Reference Animal Phyla Artificial Pond Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, P. A. V., and Schwab, W. E., 1982, Recent advances and model systems in coelenterate neurobiology, Prog. Neurobiol. 19: 213–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chalfie, M., 1984, Neural development in Caenorhabditis elegans, Trends Neurosci. 7: 197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Findlay, G. P., and Coleman, H. A., 1983, Potassium channels in the membrane of Hydrodictyon africanum, J. Membr. Biol. 75: 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hille, B., 1967, The selective inhibition of delayed potassium currents in nerve by tetraethylammonium ion, J. Gen. Physiol. 50: 1287–1302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hille, B., 1984, Ionic Channels in Excitable Membranes, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  6. Hille, B., 1987, Evolutionary origins of voltage-gated channels and synaptic transmission, in: Synaptic Function ( G. M. Edelman, W. E. Gall, and W. M. Cowan, eds.), Neurosciences Research Foundation/John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 163–176.Google Scholar
  7. Koopowitz, H., and Keenan, L., 1982, The primitive brains of platyhelminthes, Trends Neurosci. 5: 77–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Martin, S. M., and Spencer, A. N., 1983, Neurotransmitters in coelenterates, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 74C: 114.Google Scholar
  9. Noda, M., Ikeda, T., Suzuki, H., Takeshima, H., Takahashi, T., Kuno, M., and Numa, S., 1986, Expression of functional sodium channels from cloned cDNA, Nature 322: 826–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Schroeder, J. L., Raschke, K., and Neher, E., 1987, Voltage-sensitive K* channels in guard cell protoplasts, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84: 4108–4112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bertil Hille
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsUniversity of Washington Medical SchoolSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations