Cardiac-Metabolic Dissociation: Additional Heart Rates during Psychological Stress

  • J. Rick Turner
Part of the The Springer Series in Behavioral Psychophysiology and Medicine book series (SSBP)


The main focus of this chapter is on basic experimental research conducted to demonstrate that the large cardiac increases displayed by certain individuals during psychological stress are indeed over and above the adjustments dictated by the physical, or metabolic, demands of the situation. However, in addition to examining this cardiac-metabolic dissociation, the chapter provides a good opportunity to illustrate several of the points discussed in earlier chapters with examples from actual experiments. Some of the tasks discussed earlier, the basic psychophysiological strategy of investigating reactivity, and the phenomenon of individual differences in psychophysiological response to psychological challenge will all be encountered here.


Heart Rate Oxygen Consumption Video Game Mental Arithmetic Heart Rate Change 
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Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Blix, A.S., Stromme, S.B., and Ursin, H. (1974). Additional heart rate—An indicator of psychological activation. Aerospace Medicine, 45, 1219–1222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carroll, D., Turner, J.R., and Prasad, R. (1986). The effects of level of difficulty of mental arithmetic challenge on heart rate and oxygen consumption. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 4, 167–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Langer, A.W., McCubbin, J.A., Stoney, C.M., Hutcheson, J.S., Charlton, J.D., and Obrist, P.A. (1985). Cardiopulmonary adjustments during exercise and an aversive reaction time task: Effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Psychophysiology, 22, 59–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Langer, A.W., Obrist, P.A., and McCubbin, J.A. (1979). Hemodynamic and metabolic adjustments during exercise and shock avoidance in dogs. American Journal of Physiology, 5, H225–H230.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sherwood, A., Allen, M.T., Obrist, P.A., and Langer, A.W. (1986). Evaluation of betaadrenergic influences on cardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to physical and psychological stress. Psychophysiology, 23, 89–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sherwood, A., Brener, J., and Moncur, D. (1983). Information and states of motor readiness: Their effects on the covariation of heart rate and energy expenditure. Psychophysiology, 20, 513–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stoney, C.M., Langer, A.W., and Gelling, P.D. (1986). The effects of menstrual cycle phase on cardiovascular and pulmonary responses to physical and psychological stress. Psychophysiology, 23, 393–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stromme, S.B., Wikeby, P.C., Blix, A.S., and Ursin, H. (1978). Additional heart rate. In H. Ursin, E. Baade, and S. Levine (Eds.), Psychobiology of stress (pp. 83–89 ). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Turner, J.R., and Carroll, D. (1985). Heart rate and oxygen consumption during mental arithmetic, a video game, and graded exercise: Further evidence of metabolically-exaggerated cardiac adjustments? Psychophysiology, 22, 261–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    van Doornen, L.J.P., and de Geus, E.J.C. (1989). Aerobic fitness and the cardiovascular response to stress. Psychophysiology, 26, 17–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Rick Turner
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TennesseeMemphisUSA

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