Campylobacters, Salmonellas, and Indicator Bacteria in the Lune Estuary

  • M. T. Zainuldin
  • Keith Jones


Estuaries are increasingly being used for recreational purposes. The Lune estuary at Lancaster, for example, is a centre for water skiing and jet skiing. Such sports can only be done at high-water, which unfortunately coincides with the discharge of sewage effluent into the estuary from Lancaster’s effluent treatment works (ETW). There is a risk, therefore, of exposure to high levels of faecal microorganisms with the consequent risk of disease3,6,8. We have shown that Campylobacter occurs in the Lune estuary at levels above the infective dose, especially in winter and autumn4. In the past, water sports were almost exclusively a summer pastime, nowadays however, such activities continue throughout the winter, when bacteria survive for longer.


Faecal Coliform Indicator Bacterium Faecal Indicator Recreational Purpose Faecal Streptococcus 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. T. Zainuldin
    • 1
  • Keith Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Biological Sciences, I.E.B.S.Lancaster UniversityLancasterUK

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