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Plasticity in Astrocytic Phenotypes

A Role For Protein Kinase C, Tyrosine Kinases, and Cytoskeleton Signaling
  • Dimitra A. Mangoura
  • C. Pelletiere
  • D. Wang
  • N. Sakellaridis
  • V. Sogos
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 429)

Abstract

Neurons and astrocytes derive from common progenitor ectodermal cells. The neuronal progenitors actively proliferate early in development, as the development of the neural tube and the CNS vesicles progresses. Neuroblast proliferation ceases quite early, and in most species it precedes the burst of astroblastic proliferation. During the massive proliferation of neurons, astrocytes exist in small numbers and with one identifiable phenotype, namely radial glia (Cameron and Rakic, 1994). After their final mitotic division in the subventricular zone, neurons migrate, populate specific laminae in the developing brain, elaborate processes, and form functional synapses. While neurons are migrating for more precise formation of CNS layers, astroblasts proliferate, so that in the adult brain the ratio is 9 astrocytes to 1 neuron. During the course of differentiation from a glioblast to a mature astrocyte, astrocytes undergo dynamic shape-function changes. Most intermediate and differentiated phenotypes of astrocytes are characterized by expression of specific cytoskeletal proteins and the acquisition of specific shape (reviewed in Cameron and Rakic, 1991). After final positioning and cell programmed death of neurons and astrocytes, the patterning of the brain remains a very dynamic process. It now includes constant remodeling of synapses, and continuous differentiation and proliferation of astrocytes, or differentiation of neurons and oligodendrocytes.

Keywords

Chick Embryo Phorbol Ester Glutamine Synthetase Activity Cytoskeleton Protein Astrocytic Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimitra A. Mangoura
    • 1
  • C. Pelletiere
    • 1
  • D. Wang
    • 1
  • N. Sakellaridis
    • 1
  • V. Sogos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics and Committee on NeurobiologyThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA

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