Treatment of Spasmodic Dysphonia with Botulinum Toxin: Clinical Experiences and Research Issues
Spasmodic Dysphonia is a disabling speech disorder characterized by excessive contractions of laryngeal muscles. Botulinum toxin has been demonstrated in several clinical trials to be very effective in improving speech in most patients and its clinical use is becoming more widespread. Although the benefits of botulinum toxin treatment are considerable, few patients achieve a totally normal voice and minor side effects are common. Clinical research is needed to determine the factors limiting improvement, to determine the role of adjunctive speech therapy, and to develop treatment protocols which will maximize benefits and diminish side effects.
KeywordsBotulinum Toxin Essential Tremor Vocal Fold Botulinum Toxin Injection Bilateral Injection
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