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Improved Outcome after Repeated Injections of Botulinum Toxin for Treatment of Spasmodic Torticollis and Axial Dystonia: Experience with Japanese Botulinum Toxin A

  • Ryuji Kaji
  • Takahiro Mezaki
  • Nobuo Kohara
  • Takashi Nagamine
  • Tomoko Shimizu
  • Jun Kimura

Abstract

Although the efficacy of botulinum toxin in the treatment of cervical dystonia has been demonstrated1–3, significant number of patients fail to respond to this therapy. These “non-responders” show little clinical improvement from the beginning (primary failure), or become resistant to the therapy after repeated injections (secondary failure)3. The latter is ascribed to development of antibodies against the toxin, while factors underlying the primary failure are yet to be determined.

Keywords

Botulinum Toxin Single Injection Repeated Injection Cervical Dystonia Botulinum Toxin Injection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    Jankovic J, Schwartz K.Botulinum toxin injections for cervical dystonia. Neurology 1990; 41: 277–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gelb DJ, Yoshimura DM, Olney RK Lowenstein DH, Aminoff MJ. Change in pattern of muscle activity following botulinum toxin injections for torticollis. Ann Neurol 1991; 29: 370–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Green P, Kang U, Fahn S, Brin M, Moskowitz C, Flaster E. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of botulinum toxin injections for the treatment of spasmodic torticollis. Neurology 1990; 40: 1213–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryuji Kaji
    • 1
  • Takahiro Mezaki
    • 1
  • Nobuo Kohara
    • 1
  • Takashi Nagamine
    • 2
  • Tomoko Shimizu
    • 3
  • Jun Kimura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyJapan
  2. 2.Department of Brain PathophysiologyKyoto University HospitalKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Chiba Serum LaboratoryChibaJapan

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